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Nature and urban metabolism in the restructuring production of space in Brazil and Chile

Abstract

The goals for the present research require an analysis and understanding of the transformative processes inherent to real estate restructuring experienced in both Chilean and Brazilian cities; the transformation occurring within a scope that includes an appropriation of nature incorporated as an additional product in the reconfiguration of urban spaces. The aforementioned processes are unique and exceptional in their implementation in both countries but can be described and analysed using similar categories and theoretical concepts.Taking into account that the economic matrixes are different from each other (Brazil with a higher rate of industrialization, and Chile focused on the extraction of natural resources, one can observe a core real estate objective that defines cities as targets for investment. One hypothesis regarding the real estate restructuring reveals a progressive change in the manner in which nature is used, transformed and exploited, to the extent of producing new and inventive natural environments. What sustains these concerns is explained via urban metabolism, considering the flows of power and energy - investment - that drive both horizontal and vertical expansion. Questions surrounding urban metabolism and the production of natural environments strain the framework of the discussion on financial capitalism. The conditions of wellbeing and comfort in a habitat built facing bodies of water influence how they are promoted in communications media in the city. As a result, natural environments have a visible political, social and financial connotation when studying these urban locations.Within the framework of transformative territorial processes and production of natural environments, the issue is as yet little developed, despite the popular concern of the environment and sustainability which generally focuses the efforts of academia, politics and social groups. In research regarding real estate production, the focus proposed herein is innovative, centring on developing social issues and emerging environmental issues. In this sense this project looks to delve into these new forms of urban and environmental intervention, significantly integrating a review of public policy.The empirical groundwork focuses on urban areas that unite all the processes mentioned above, in both countries, using the same methodology. In Brazil the study focuses on the areas of "Urban Operation Consortium Água Espraiada", and the "Urban Intervention Program Leopoldina", both located in the outskirts of Pinheiros River in São Paulo. In both cases real estate restructuring takes place in industrial areas, and sustained by the financial instruments used in real estate and infrastructure in the appraised areas of the territory. The peri-urban spaces in these metropolises also contain protected environmental areas, as well as areas of intense residential construction built for lower income segments of the population. The banks and borders of bodies of water in Chile, areas such as rivers and wetlands, are subject to high pressure from real estate interest. The State and private sector opened up significant spaces for real estate profit in these natural environs by creating housing subsidies for socially-oriented condominiums, creating niches for the generation of wealth for bigger more profitable projects. This study proposes the following essential areas for research and investigation: the ravine and gully area of Greater Valparaiso - extending from Playa Ancha to Reñaca Alto following the line of hills enclosing the bay; The Ribera Sur project in the Mapocho river - located in the western area of Greater Santiago; and Catrico Park in the city of Valdivia - located in the Region de los Rios and characterised by the surrounding wetlands, all which add a factor of sustainable environment to housing projects in the vicinity. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
EMPINOTTI, VANESSA LUCENA; BUDDS, JESSICA; JEPSON, WENDY; MILLINGTON, NATE; FERRARA, LUCIANA NICOLAU; GEERE, JO-ANNE; GRANDISOLI, EDSON; ARTEIRO DA PAZ, MARIANA GUTIERRES; PUGA, BRUNO PEREGRINA; ALVES, ESTELA MACEDO; CAWOOD, SALLY; JACOBI, PEDRO ROBERTO; KINJO, VICTOR UEHARA; LAMPIS, ANDREA; MORETTI, RICARDO; OCTAVIANTI, THANTI; PERIOTTO, NATALIA; QUINN, RUTH; QUINTSLR, SUYA; SULAIMAN, SAMIA; VICENTE, PAULA ARCE; WAHBY, NOURA. Advancing urban water security: The urbanization of water-society relations and entry-points for political engagement. WATER INTERNATIONAL, JUL 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.
HIDALGO, RODRIGO; ALVARADO, VOLTAIRE; PAULSEN-ESPINOZA, ALEX. Waterfront market integration: housing and sustainability in Chilean urban policy (2000-2018). GEOJOURNAL, MAY 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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