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Application of biotechnological tools in forest improvement of native and exotic forest species with timber potential


When dealing with economic and commercial interests, it is observed that there is still the exploitation of natural forests for extractive purposes, mainly for the exploitation and commercialization of their wood products, being one of the responsible causes of the depletion of these resources in nature, therefore, it becomes - studies on silviculture of native and exotic forest species are essential, providing a basis for the sustainable production of tropical hardwoods, from planted forests, providing economic viability. Use biotechnological tools to accelerate the genetic improvement process of native and exotic alternative species to obtain more productive individuals for the production of seeds and propagules with genetic quality to meet, mainly, the demand of the wood forest market for unfolding for different purposes. The work will be developed from the selection of individuals in commercial stands and tests of origins and progenies of Calophyllum brasiliense, Cariniana legalis, Cordia trichotoma, Khaya. senegalensis and Khaya grandifoliola based on phenotypic characters and genetic values. The experimental tests were established at the company Futuro Florestal and also by public institutions such as Instituto Florestal de São Paulo, Unesp de Ilha Solteira and Embrapa Florestas.The objective of this project is to make possible the conservation and use of these germplasms with the support of a private sector company that, with more than 15 years, has been carrying out numerous researches with these species in partnership with public institutions. The selections will be made after a phenotyping of a large part of the individuals of the forest stands and of all the provenance and progeny tests. The characters measured will be those of growth and those related to the shape of the stem and quality of the wood. In parallel with field activities, micro and macro propagation protocols for alternative native and exotic species will be developed in the laboratory and nursery. The seedlings will be produced to perform the grafting aiming at the formation of first-generation clonal orchards. The characters evaluated will be: diameter at breast height at 1.30 m (DBH-cm), total plant height (H-m), shape of the stem, angle of the branches, distance between internodes, height of the bifurcation and basic density of the wood. The modulus of elasticity and basic wood density will be evaluated using the TreeSonic equipment. Statistical and genetic analyzes will be performed based on the software Selegen (REML / BLUP), R and Genes. With this project, it is expected to form genetically improved seed populations of alternative native and exotic forest species, making the cultivation of these species more productive and attractive to planting in the State of São Paulo and in Brazil as a whole, as well as Latin America and countries such as Australia and Indonesia, as a source of wood for multiple uses in their properties, for sale and reforestation of degraded areas. It is also expected to establish a protocol for the vegetative propagation of the selected species, in order to provide a technological basis to advance the propagation and domestication of the selected materials in the constitution of clonal mini-gardens, scaling production on a commercial scale and making these unconventional materials available, but of great added value, to the forestry sector. (AU)