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Prediction and prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the states of São Paulo and Paraíba aiming at the development of monitoring and removal strategies in aqueous media (PRIOFARMA SP-PB)

Abstract

Pollution by pharmaceuticals is a worldwide concern due to the deleterious effects arising from the presence of these substances in the environment, especially in aquatic ecosystems, where they are frequently and increasingly reported. Many drugs have antiparasitic, insecticidal or repellent actions that inhibit pathogens, affect key species in ecosystems and promote antimicrobial resistance. Other drugs are endocrine disruptors, immunomodulatory and neurological agents, interacting with diverse organisms and affecting their development at different life cycle stages. Further complex issues emerge, such as the deleterious effects of their derivatives - degradation products and metabolites - and synergistic actions arising from interactions between different substances (drugs and non-drugs) on living organisms. The monitoring and control of pharmaceuticals in the environment brings direct and indirect implications to the achievement of several Sustainable Development Goals established by the World Health Organization, such as: a) Clean Water and Sanitation; b) Good health and well-being; c) Life below water; d) Life on land; d) Sustainable cities and communities; and e) Responsible consumption and production. Most of the studies that aim to identify, monitor, and remove drugs dispersed in the environment are not guided by a market logic strategy to establish the target molecules, leading to the consumption of time and resources for the development of analytical and treatment methods that are not always intended for those substances that could pose major harm to life. This project will use data on the commercialization of pharmaceuticals in different municipalities of the states of São Paulo and Paraíba, provided by a partner company that works in market intelligence, associated with physicochemical, toxicological, pharmacokinetic and water/sewage treatment data to define target molecules of study following the steps of: 1) Prediction of the amounts of pharmaceutical substances possibly present in water bodies, and 2) Prioritization of the molecules that should be the target of study in each state. Predictions and prioritizations will be carried out for seven therapeutic classes, namely: i) analgesics, antipyretics, and anti-inflammatory drugs; ii) hormones; iii) antineoplastic and immunomodulatory agents; iv) antibiotics; v) antidepressants, vi) antihypertensives; vii) antidiabetics. The purpose of performing the prediction and prioritization studies for the both states is based on the socioeconomic and cultural differences between them, which lead to different realities of consumption of medicines, either by financial and prescription limitations, due to the quality and availability of healthcare, or regional habits. As a third step, verification of the target molecules will be performed through analysis of representative water bodies in each state. In a fourth step, photostability studies of the established target molecules will be carried out in aqueous media to identify their main degradation products, obtaining information about derived substances of concern for toxicological studies and environmental monitoring. In step 5, analytical methods for monitoring the prioritized molecules and strategies for their removal from the aqueous environment will be developed. Aiming to contribute with their effective use and with the economy of Brazil, such methods will be preferably low cost, and will involve principles of Bioeconomics and Circular Economy, aiming to meet the necessary accuracy. The prediction and prioritization data will be made available to the academic community and public policy makers, aiming to contribute to its dissemination, both for research and to support the development of public policies on the issue. This project is linked to the Collaborative Network for Research on Water Pollution and Water Resources (HydroPoll, https://www.hydropoll.org/) under the PharmaPoll thematic initiative. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
GUIMARAES, TACIANA G. S.; BARROS, LUCELIA A.; SILVA, RICARDO SANTOS; GONZALEZ, MARIO H.; CARRILHO, ELMA N. V. M.; LABUTO, GEORGIA. Synthesis and characterization of biochars modified with natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) for dipyrone removal from aqueous medium. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACY, v. 35, p. 18-pg., . (22/06823-8, 21/06471-1, 21/14759-5, 21/14791-6, 20/12263-0, 21/10599-3, 20/14419-7, 22/08358-0)

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