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Microbial-Host Interaction: prospection and validation of agricultural interest biomarkers and therapeutic targets discovery in Cattle

Abstract

Two crucial characteristics of cattle farming are feed efficiency (FE) and enteric methane emission (ME) from animals. Studies using different omic technologies have reported that the rumen microbiota can promote phenotypic variations in the host in the short and long term. There are many possible theories for interspecies communication between the microbiota and host cells, such as through proteins, RNA, and metabolites, which can be transported throughout the host body via extracellular vesicles (EVs). Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs), represent promising candidates for a "common language" between species, as they are produced by all living organisms and can be transported throughout the host body by EVs. Recent studies suggest that miRNAs can regulate bacterial gene expression and thus influence microbiome composition. Furthermore, the observations of the studies support the existence of RNAs in prokaryotic organisms similar to miRNAs (msRNAs), capable of regulating host gene expression. We hypothesize that the host can regulate its microbiota through the action of regulatory elements (such as miRNAs) and the interaction between genes, just as microorganisms can regulate various host metabolic pathways through msRNA and specific proteins. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the EVs might transport these primary mediators in microbiota-host communications. Thus, the objectives of this research proposal are: (1) to investigate the interaction and molecular regulation between the host and microbial candidates associated with feed efficiency and methane emission in cattle, (2) to investigate microbial msRNAs and host miRNAs, and to look for potential interactions based on sRNA regulation, (3) identify EV-carried sRNA molecules and investigate the impact of the msRNAs candidate on cattle rumen cells in vitro and, (4) identify candidate sRNAs and miRNAs in content ruminal, blood and saliva as possible biomarkers for the phenotypes of interest. (AU)

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