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Mice in overtraining: relationships between the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the impairment of the molecular pathways of insulin signaling


The imbalance between the exercise demand and the athletes' recovery period leads to the appearance of skeletal muscle traumas, inducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may be related to the origin and development of overreaching (OR) and overtraining (OT). In addition, it is known that the increased levels of these cytokines affect the function of PI3q/Akt and AMPK molecular signaling pathways, which impairs glucose uptake and glycogen formation. Thus, the main aim of the present study is to verify the responses of serum concentrations of TNF-±, IL-6 and IL-1², and the protein content of TNF-±, IL-6, IR², IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3q, Akt, AMPK, JNK, IKK², SOCS3 and GLUT-4 in skeletal muscle of mice submitted to OT. The animals will be divided into four groups: control (C; sedentary), trained (TR; undergoing training protocol), overtraining (OT, undergoing overtraining protocol) and OT supplemented with glucose (OT+SG; undergoing overtraining protocol and supplemented with glucose). The mice will be evaluated weekly for variation in body weight and food intake. At the end of the TR and OT protocols, the animals will be submitted to the insulin tolerance test. The content of the proteins previously described will be evaluated in the long digital extensor and soleus muscles by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. For comparison between groups will be used the Student's unpaired t-test and variance analysis followed by test for multiple comparison of means. A significance level of pd0.05 will be used. (AU)

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(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
DA ROCHA, ALISSON L.; PINTO, ANA P.; KOHAMA, EIKE B.; PAULI, JOSE R.; DE MOURA, LEANDRO P.; CINTRA, DENNYS E.; ROPELLE, EDUARDO R.; DA SILVA, ADELINO S. R.. The proinflammatory effects of chronic excessive exercise. CYTOKINE, v. 119, p. 57-61, . (12/23258-0, 13/19985-7, 17/12765-2, 14/25459-9, 10/08239-4, 13/22737-5, 15/08013-0, 13/20591-3, 17/19869-8, 11/02652-0, 17/09038-1)
PEREIRA, B. C.; PAULI, J. R.; DE SOUZA, C. T.; ROPELLE, E. R.; CINTRA, D. E.; ROCHA, E. M.; FREITAS, E. C.; PAPOTI, M.; DA SILVA, L.; LIRA, F. S.; et al. Nonfunctional Overreaching Leads to Inflammation and Myostatin Upregulation in Swiss Mice. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, v. 35, n. 2, p. 139-146, . (10/08239-4, 11/02652-0)
PEREIRA, BRUNO C.; FILHO, LUIS A. L.; ALVES, GUILHERME F.; PAULI, JOSE R.; ROPELLE, EDUARDO R.; SOUZA, CLAUDIO T.; CINTRA, DENNYS E.; SAAD, MARIO J. A.; SILVA, ADELINO S. R.. A new overtraining protocol for mice based on downhill running sessions. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, v. 39, n. 9, p. 793-798, . (11/09864-2, 10/08239-4, 11/02652-0)

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