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Bothrops jararaca venom proteome rearrangement upon neonate to adult transition

Abstract

The pharmacological activities displayed by Bothrops jararaca venom undergo a significant ontogenetic shift. Likewise, the diet of this species changes from ectothermic prey in early life to endothermic prey in adulthood. In this study we used large and representative newborn and adult venom samples consisted of pools from 694 and 110 specimens, respectively, and demonstrate a significant ontogenetic shift in the venom proteome complexity of B. jararaca. 2-DE coupled to mass spectrometric protein identification showed a clear rearrangement of the toxin arsenal both in terms of the total proteome, as of the glycoproteome. N-glycosylation seems plays a key role in venom protein variability between newborn and adult specimens. Upon the snake development, the subproteome of metalloproteinases undergoes a shift from a P-III-rich to a P-I-rich profile while the serine proteinase profile does not vary significantly. We also used isobaric tag labeling (iTRAQ) of venom tryptic peptides for the first time to examine the quantitative changes in the venom toxins of B. jararaca upon neonate to adult transition. The iTRAQ analysis showed changes in various toxin classes especially the proteinases. Our study expands the in-depth understanding of venom complexity variation particularly with regard to toxin families that have been associated with envenomation pathogenesis. (AU)