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Cicloxigenase-2 and transformimg growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression in canine prostatic hyperplasia, intra-epithelial neoplasia and prostatic cancer


Prostate gland is the only accessory sex gland in the dog that causes problems in adult and older dogs. BPH is the main cause of prostatic increased volume and occurs in 80 to 100% of older dogs. The dog is the only non-human species that spontaneously develops BPH and prostatic cancer. Neoplasias are rare and highly agressive. Although many points are similar in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer and BPH, this is not considered a pre-neoplastic disease. Adenocarcinoma pre-malignat phase is called intraepithelial neoplasia or ducto-acinar displasia, and they are simillar in the dogs and humans, concerning morphological aspects, imonophenotype and cancer association. Immunohistochemical markers have been used in the study of angiogenesis promotion, apoptosis inhibition, invasive capacity, metastasis and inflammation response. In the present study COX-2 and TGF-beta will be studied to evaluate their expression in different prostatic diseases, such as BPH, PIN and cancer. Due to the high BPH and low cancer frequencies, PIN is highly important to the understanding of prostatic cancer. (AU)

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