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Alternatives to increase income coffee crop in São Paulo State: intercropping of arabic coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche)

Grant number: 15/16790-6
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: March 01, 2016 - February 28, 2018
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy
Principal Investigator:Marcos José Perdoná
Grantee:Marcos José Perdoná
Home Institution: Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA). Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento (São Paulo - Estado). Campinas , SP, Brazil
Assoc. researchers: Antonio José Porto ; Rogério Peres Soratto


Each year, approximately 7,000 hectares of coffee plants are eradicated in the State of São Paulo. The intercropped coffee (Coffea arabica L.) with macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche) has proven beneficial to culture, as a reduction in the incidence of winds and maximum air temperature. This production system allows the farmer an additional income from the second crop, which makes it favorable. Therefore, areas occupied by coffee plantations with eradication prognosis can offer installation chance to syndicated, temporary or permanent crops, increasing farmers' income. However, there are no studies of how to promote this intercrop deployment into existing coffee plantations. When planted at the same time, considering the use of manual crops, coffee intercropped with macadamia was economically more efficient than single crops in the early years, offering an alternative income expansion, especially for smallholders. However, in recent years, even small farmers needed to mechanize their crops. In this respect, it opened up a gap over coffee intercropped feasibility studies with the macadamia in fully mechanized systems. To elucidate the issues addressed, settled two experiments. The first experiment was installed in July 2015 in the municipality of Dois Córregos-SP, in an area with monocropped coffee and coffee intercropped with macadamia trees, 9 years of age. The experiment is conducted entirely in irrigated condition, it consists of six treatments, i.e., coffee intercropped with six varieties of macadamia (IAC 9-20, 4-12B IAC, IAC 4-20, HAES 660, HAES 816, and HAES 344) and monocropped coffee, installed in a completely randomized design with five repetitions. This aims to assess whether the intercropping system, in adulthood, offers economic advantages over the cropping under conditions of mechanical harvesting. Also, evaluate which of the varieties of macadamia have more desirable characteristics to the consortium in fully mechanized farming, "adult" age. The second experiment was installed in October 2014 in the municipality of Gália-SP, in order to consider ways of replacing inefficient coffee plantations by intercropping with macadamia trees. In this, the design was a randomized block design with four replications and six treatments: 1 - eliminating a coffee trees and planting of macadamia in his grave; 2 - planting macadamia between two different pruning coffee, 40 cm; 3 - planting macadamia between two esqueletados coffee, 30 cm; 4 - planting macadamia between two coffee will not suffer interference; 5 - single macadamia planted in coffee eradicated area and 6 - single coffee. In both experiments will be evaluated: plant height, canopy diameter, and trunk diameter of macadamia trees, number of nuts per plant, production of nuts per plant, and almonds yield, and height, trunk diameter and bean yield of coffee. The data will be analyzed with the aid of the statistical program SAS (2003) and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. In both experiments, all input values and assets will be recorded and, considering the costs and gross revenues obtained in the end, will make a comparison between net revenues, was investigating then the treatment of greater viability. (AU)

Articles published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the research grant
Intercropping with macadamia protects coffee and boosts yield