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Influence of insect repelents and UV filters combinations on photoinduced processes

Abstract

The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, Zika and Chikungunya fever has increased in the last years. The insect repellents (IRs), especially DEET and icaridin, are recommended to prevent these diseases transmission. IRs are regulated as cosmetic products in Brazil, although they are biocides in Europe and pesticides in USA. They are considered safe to use; however, their use has significantly increased with the outbreaks and epidemics of these diseases. In addition, in tropical countries, the high incidence of UV radiation has increased the simultaneous use of UV filters and IRs, making urgent the study of the interactions between IRs and UV filters. This way, this project aims to assess the influence of the IRs and UV-filters combinations on photoinduced processes: phototoxicity, skin sensitization/ photosensitization and photogenotoxicity. Thus, two combinations of UV filters will be assessed, one photostable and the other photounstable, which will be combined to the IRs DEET or icaridin. The absorption spectrum of these combinations will be assessed, followed by the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, in which fibroblasts will be exposed to the combinations, followed or not by 5 J/cm2 of UVA exposure, according to OECD TG 432. Then, the combinations will be submitted to the phototoxicity, skin sensitisation and photosensitization assays in reconstructed skin models. The models will be exposed to the combinations, followed by 6 J/cm2 of UVA irradiation. MTT will be used to analyze cell viability and phototoxixity, while the ratio of IL-18 release/cell viability will be used for skin sensitization and photosensitization assays. For the photogenotoxicity evaluation, the keratinocytes and the reconstructed skin models exposed to the combinations, followed by 6 J/cm2 of UVA irradiation. For the comet assay, electrophoresis technique will be performed and glass slides will be examined by fluorescence microscopy. In the micronucleus assay, cells will be dropped onto glass slides, stained examined by fluorescence microscopy. Finally, we would like to highlight the need for studies that assess the interaction between IRs and other chemicals, such as UV filters in order to guarantee the rational and safe use of these chemicals by the population, as well as for supporting the taking of decisions by regulatory agencies about permission of using these combinations. (AU)

Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
SCARPIN, MARCELA SILVA; KAWAKAMI, CAMILA MARTINS; RANGEL, KAREN CRISTINA; PEREIRA, KARINA DE CASTRO; BENEVENUTO, CAROLINA GOMES; GASPAR, LORENA RIGO. Effects of UV-filter Photostabilizers in the Photostability and Phototoxicity of Vitamin A Palmitate Combined with Avobenzone and Octyl Methoxycinnamate. Photochemistry and Photobiology, MAR 2021. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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