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Human biological individuality versus resistance-training variables modulation: what really matters for muscle hypertrophy?

Grant number: 17/04299-1
Support type:Regular Research Grants
Duration: August 01, 2017 - July 31, 2019
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Physical Education
Principal Investigator:Cleiton Augusto Libardi
Grantee:Cleiton Augusto Libardi
Home Institution: Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS). Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCAR). São Carlos , SP, Brazil
Assoc. researchers:Carlos Ugrinowitsch ; Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira ; Vitor Angleri

Abstract

Resistance exercise (RE) is recommended broadly to prevent or attenuate obesity, type 2 diabetes and other comorbidities, avoiding premature death. However, several aspects involved in resistance training (RT) prescription and the mechanisms that are affected with acute RE and chronic RT practice are not well understood, precluding an RT design that provides a stimuli to promote optimized, maximized and continued gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. Our group successfully investigated (FAPESP funded, #2013/21218-4) some of the mechanisms involved in RT-induced hypertrophy, such as the relation between acute integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS), muscle damage and chronic hypertrophy in different RT phases. In this proposal, we want to progress and try to continue to understand the mechanisms that underpin RE aiming a prescription that provides the best stimuli to promote health and improve performance. One important aspect of RT that is far from being understood is how to maximize RT-induced muscle hypertrophy individually, since human biological variability of RT-related outcomes (i.e., muscle strength and hypertrophy) is fairly large. Therefore, an important current unanswered question is raised: is there any importance of manipulating RT variables (e.g., load, number of sets, repetitions, type of contraction, rest between sets) when applying RT up to muscle fatigue; or is it that fatigue is really enough to maximize gains independent of other RT modulations and how each individual capacity to adapt is the key to understand variability in RT-induced muscle hypertrophy? This would allow to infer if the magnitude of hypertrophy is dependent of the type of the stimulus of the RT or if it is related to the biological capacity of the individual, independent of the type of stimulus of the RT when this is realized until muscle failure. Therefore, we propose 10 weeks of unilateral RT (2*week-1) performed by resistance-trained individuals to analyze individual biological responsiveness to the different paradigms of RT until muscle failure in two conditions: 1) RT performed constantly (RT-CON) - leg 1 (n=20); 2) RT with load variation (kg), sets, repetitions, contraction type and rest interval (RT-VAR) - leg 2 (n=20). RT-CON will serve as an internal control because it is based on the individual's ability to progress RT up to muscle failure. This will be compared intra-individually with the RT-VAR leg, which will perform RT in a varied way. We will analyze through muscle biopsies: the rate of MPS (through deuterated water ingestion method), ASTf and number of satellite cells (histochemical analysis), and expression of key genes by PCR real-time, related to muscular hypertrophy, in addition to evaluating the total muscle area by ultrasonography. The objectives of the present study are: 1) to compare the effect of RT protocols performed until muscle failure: RT-CON vs. RT-VAR, in muscle fiber area (ASTf) type I and II and whole muscle area - in order to understand if the RT until muscle failure is sufficient to promote a maximized intra-subject response; 2) To compare the effects of RT-CON and RT-VAR on SPM - with the objective of understanding the effect of each TF variable on SPM; 3) To compare the intra-subject response of one leg executing the RT-CON with the other leg performing the RT-VAR - in order to evaluate if the greatest difference in the magnitude of muscular hypertrophy is actually due to biological individuality; and 4) to verify whether individual biological variability can be explained by previously suggested mechanisms such as MPS rate, changes in satellite cell content, and gene expression of mechano growth factor (MGF) and myogenic regulatory factors (myogenic factor 5 [Myf-5] and myogenic determinant factor [MyoD], Myf-6, myogenin and MRF4). (AU)

Scientific publications (4)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
DAMAS, FELIPE; ANGLERI, VITOR; PHILLIPS, STUART M.; WITARD, OLIVER C.; UGRINOWITSCH, CARLOS; SANTANIELO, NATALIA; SOLIGON, SAMUEL D.; COSTA, LUIZ A. R.; LIXANDRAO, MANOEL E.; CONCEICAO, MIGUEL S.; LIBARDI, CLEITON A. Myofibrillar protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy individualized responses to systematically changing resistance training variables in trained young men. Journal of Applied Physiology, v. 127, n. 3, p. 806-815, SEP 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
DAMAS, FELIPE; BARCELOS, CINTIA; NOBREGA, SANMY R.; UGRINOWITSCH, CARLOS; LIXANDRAO, MANOEL E.; SANTOS, LUCAS M. E. D.; CONCEICAO, MIGUEL S.; VECHIN, FELIPE C.; LIBARDI, CLEITON A. INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY AND STRENGTH RESPONSES TO HIGH VS. LOW RESISTANCE TRAINING FREQUENCIES. JOURNAL OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING RESEARCH, v. 33, n. 4, p. 897-901, APR 2019. Web of Science Citations: 3.
DAMAS, FELIPE; UGRINOWITSCH, CARLOS; LIBARDI, CLEITON A.; JANNIG, PAULO R.; HECTOR, AMY J.; MCGLORY, CHRIS; LIXANDRAO, MANOEL E.; VECHIN, FELIPE C.; MONTENEGRO, HORACIO; TRICOLI, VALMOR; ROSCHEL, HAMILTON; PHILLIPS, STUART M. Resistance training in young men induces muscle transcriptome-wide changes associated with muscle structure and metabolism refining the response to exercise-induced stress. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, v. 118, n. 12, p. 2607-2616, DEC 2018. Web of Science Citations: 1.
DAMAS, FELIPE; LIBARDI, CLEITON A.; UGRINOWITSCH, CARLOS. The development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy through resistance training: the role of muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, v. 118, n. 3, p. 485-500, MAR 2018. Web of Science Citations: 20.

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