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Biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes at the Atlantic Plateau of São Paulo (Brazil)

Grant number: 99/05123-4
Support type:BIOTA-FAPESP Program - Thematic Grants
Duration: March 01, 2000 - February 28, 2005
Field of knowledge:Biological Sciences - Ecology - Applied Ecology
Principal researcher:Jean Paul Walter Metzger
Grantee:Jean Paul Walter Metzger
Home Institution: Instituto de Biociências (IB). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Pesquisadores principais:
Flavio Antonio Maës dos Santos ; Vânia Regina Pivello
Associated scholarship(s):04/11279-7 - Conservation of understory birds in fragmented landscapes: importance of cover and configuration of the habitat, BP.MS
04/04959-1 - Responses of the small mammals from the mature areas of the Atlantic Rainforest to micro-scale variations to the habitat, BP.IC
03/12723-5 - Effects of fragmentation on the predation of artificial nests in the region of Atlantic Rainforest, Caucaia do Alto, SP, BP.IC
+ associated scholarships 02/10845-3 - Small mammals in Caucaia do Alto: an analysis of the importance of connectivity in a fragmented landscape, BP.MS
02/09823-5 - Seed rain in a tropical mountain forest on the São Paulo Plateau, BP.IC
02/02126-7 - Study of the relative importance of the degree of connectivity and of the structure of the vegetation for the small mammal community in wooded fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest, BP.IC
02/02125-0 - Effects of the fragmentation of the Atlantic Rainforest: investigating the importance of the size of the fragment and of the quality of the habitat in the structuring of the small mammal community, BP.IC
01/13309-2 - Effects of the fragmentation of the Atlantic Rainforest: a comparative study between landscapes and groups of species of small vertebrates, BP.PD
00/13518-8 - Tietê River, SP: a study of the relationship between perception of landscape and environmental conservation, BP.PD
01/07916-3 - Diversity of frogs and litterfall alligators in fragmented landscape in the São Paulo Atlantic Plateau, BP.DR
01/05281-0 - Spatial distribution in subpopulations of Lytocaryum hoehnei (Burret) Toledo (Arecaceae) in the Morro Grande Forestry Reserve, municipality of Cotia, metropolitain region of São Paulo, BP.IC
00/08046-0 - Variation of the abundance and richness of species of understory birds in a fragmented landscape, BP.IC
00/14605-1 - Influence of the connectivity of the landscape on seed dispersal in fragments of the Atlantic Tropical Forest: pilot project, BP.IC
00/14606-8 - Influence of the connectivity of the landscape on seed dispersal in fragments of the Atlantic Tropical Forest: pilot project, BP.IC
99/10794-5 - Demography of Lytocaryum hoehnei (Burret) Toledo (Arecaceae) in a fragmented landscape in the metropolitain region of the city of São Paulo, BP.DR
00/03945-6 - Effect of connectivity on the abundance and wealth of plantules and young tree species in fragmented landscapes, BP.PD
00/07722-1 - Conservationist behavior and environmental legislation in the maintenance of forest areas in the region of Caucaia do Alto (Cotia, Ibiúna, SP), BP.MS
00/01587-5 - Relationships between the pattern of relief and the diversity of tree species in fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest in the region of Caucaia, São Paulo, BP.MS
00/01358-6 - The use of play-back techniques in the development of a method capable of confirming the presence or absence of birds in the interior of forest fragments, BP.MS
99/12704-3 - Effects of the matrix in the reproductive biology of Psychotria nuda (Rubiaceae) in forest fragments in the Atlantic Plateau of São Paulo, BP.MS
00/01120-0 - Effect of the size of fragment and of the type of matrix in the abundance of six species of forest birds in Caucaia do Alto, São Paulo, BP.MS - associated scholarships


Habitat fragmentation is presently one of the most serious ecological problems at present. In the tropics, a huge number of species is being lost every day even before becoming known by science. Since fragmented habitats will be the pattern in the future, environmental management actions must be taken to avoid the ruin of biological diversity and all benefits derived of it. This projects intends to study some vital effects of fragmentation in a landscape formed by secondary tropical forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest biome (23035'S, 23050'S; and 46°45'W, 47015'W) and to provide ecological basis for regional management, in order to promote the persistence of the highest number of species in the landscape. In this context, the main objective of this project is to verify what spatial arrangement and which landscape elements are needed to maintain the biological diversity, by: i) describing the history of fragmentation and regeneration of the landscape; ii) relating fragment size and matrix type to species diversity of some taxonomic groups, presence abundance of forest (meta)populations, according to their sensitivity to fragmentation; iv) investigating the ecological processes which determine the main tenance of (meta)populations, particularly those related with the influence of the surrounding matrix and forest connectivity. These objectives match the request of the BIOTA FAPESP Program. The project design includes eight sub-projects, dealing with the same landscapes and groups of forest fragments, with complementary objectives. We propose an approach that involves a multiple scale analysis, where either the whole landscape and the fragments will be focused 00, detailing on the matrix and corridor effects; studies will be carried out at the population and community levels, where a wide range of taxa will be examined (woody plants, primates, birds); umbrella-species and key-processes which may maintain high biodiversity will be the sought. Different theories on landscape ecology will be tested and parameters of the spatial landscape structure and of habitat quality will be integrated to metapopulation models, particularly the incidence function model. To understand the present landscape structure and its history of fragmentation and regeneration, two types of landscapes will be distinguished: one formed by a forest matrix, and another by an agricultural matrix. They will be characterized considering: i) landscape connectivity and heterogeneity, forest fragmentation and isolation (sub-project 1); ii) geomorphological and pedological features, and main physical geo-indicators for measuring the magnitude and velocity of key abiotic processes (sub-project 2). Each fragment will be characterized by: i) size; ii) heterogeneity of the forest eco-units; iii) internal environmental quality and heterogeneity of the eco-units; iv) shape and edge effects; v) border complexity; vi) degree of isolation and connectivity, and the potential for (re)colonization; vii) age and history of regeneration, as obtained by the analysis of aerial photographs from1962, 1973 and 1988 (sub-projects 1 and 3). To relate biodiversity patterns with forest fragment size and matrix type, twelve fragments will be studied in detail, concerning: i) species composition and diversity of adult trees (sub-project 3); ii) species composition and diversity of tree seedlings and saplings (sub-project 7); iii) the abundance of six bird species (sub-project 6); iv) the biomass and density of primates (sub-project 5). The influence of matrix and corridors on seed flows (sub-project 8), forest regeneration (sub-project 7), movement of selected bird species (sub-project 6) will be analyzed in more detail, dealing with a reduced number of fragments. Fragment size and connectivity will also be related with patch-occupancy patterns potentials for species (re)colonization, By working with high- and low-demanding landscape, as well as the landscape types which support only low demanding species. Here, 50 to 60 fragments will be considered, from 4-5 ha to 90 ha, being around half of with agricultural matrix. Initially, the following organisms will have their patch-occupancy patterns considered: i) six bird species (sub project 6); ii) one endemic palm-tree species (sub-project 4); iii) several tree species (sub-project 3). The comparison of these two groups of fragments in terms of size, environmental quality (sub-project 3) and spatial attributes (isolation, connectivity, matrix type) (sub-project 1) must indicate the factors which dictate the permanence of a given species in the landscape. Incidence function models will be applied to analyse patch-occupancy patterns and simulate the species occurrence in different scenarios of the landscape evolution. This approach will allow us to identify the best fragment conditions for maintaining the species in the landscape in a long term basis, assuming they behave as metapopulation, providing direct ecological basis for the conservation management of tropical forest fragments. One of the main results of the project proposed will be the generation of a data base with spatialized information on the regional physiography, structure and dynamics of the regional flora and landscape, besides publications in specialized journals, diffusion articles, multimidia material, such as CD-ROM and on-line data base, and a guide for the regional woody species, directed to non-specialists, particularly children of public regional schools. (AU)

Articles published in Pesquisa FAPESP Magazine about the research grant:
Las metamorfosis del Bosque Atlántico 
The Metamorphoses of the Atlantic Forest 
Articles published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the research grant:
Articles published in other media outlets (0 total):
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Scientific publications (43)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
FREITAS, SIMONE R.; CONSTANTINO, EVERTON; ALEXANDRINO, MARCOS M. Computational geometry applied to develop new metrics of road and edge effects and their performance to understand the distribution of small mammals in an Atlantic forest landscape. ECOLOGICAL MODELLING, v. 388, p. 24-30, NOV 24 2018. Web of Science Citations: 0.
NOGUEIRA, ANDRE DO AMARAL; PINTO-DA-ROCHA, RICARDO. The effects of habitat size and quality on the orb-weaving spider guild (Arachnida: Araneae) in an Atlantic Forest fragmented landscape. JOURNAL OF ARACHNOLOGY, v. 44, n. 1, p. 36-45, 2016. Web of Science Citations: 3.
FREITAS, SIMONE R.; ALEXANDRINO, MARCOS M.; PARDINI, RENATA; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. A model of road effect using line integrals and a test of the performance of two new road indices using the distribution of small mammals in an Atlantic Forest landscape. ECOLOGICAL MODELLING, v. 247, p. 64-70, 2012. Web of Science Citations: 7.
PUETZ, S.; GROENEVELD, J.; ALVES, L. F.; METZGER, J. P.; HUTH, A. Fragmentation drives tropical forest fragments to early successional states: A modelling study for Brazilian Atlantic forests. ECOLOGICAL MODELLING, v. 222, n. 12, p. 1986-1997, JUN 24 2011. Web of Science Citations: 64.
BANKS-LEITE, CRISTINA; EWERS, ROBERT M.; KAPOS, VALERIE; MARTENSEN, ALEXANDRE C.; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. Comparing species and measures of landscape structure as indicators of conservation importance. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, v. 48, n. 3, p. 706-714, JUN 2011. Web of Science Citations: 46.
FELINKS, BIRGIT; PARDINI, RENATA; DIXO, MARIANNA; FOLLNER, KLAUS; METZGER, JEAN P.; HENLE, KLAUS. Effects of species turnover on reserve site selection in a fragmented landscape. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, v. 20, n. 5, p. 1057-1072, MAY 2011. Web of Science Citations: 5.
PINOTTI, BRUNO T.; NAXARA, LAURA; PARDINI, RENATA. Diet and food selection by small mammals in an old-growth Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, v. 46, n. 1, p. 1-9, 2011. Web of Science Citations: 11.
DIXO, MARIANNA; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. The matrix-tolerance hypothesis: an empirical test with frogs in the Atlantic Forest. BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION, v. 19, n. 11, p. 3059-3071, OCT 2010. Web of Science Citations: 21.
FREITAS, SIMONE R.; HAWBAKER, TODD J.; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. Effects of roads, topography, and land use on forest cover dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, v. 259, n. 3, p. 410-417, JAN 25 2010. Web of Science Citations: 67.
HANSBAUER‚ M.M.; STORCH‚ I.; KNAUER‚ F.; PILZ‚ S.; KÜCHENHOFF‚ H.; VÉGVÁRI‚ Z.; PIMENTEL‚ R.G.; METZGER‚ J.P. Landscape perception by forest understory birds in the Atlantic Rainforest: black-and-white versus shades of grey. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY, v. 25, n. 3, p. 407-417, 2010.
HANSBAUER‚ M.M.; VÉGVÁRI‚ Z.; STORCH‚ I.; BORNTRAEGER‚ R.; HETTICH‚ U.; PIMENTEL‚ R.G.; METZGER‚ J.P. Microhabitat selection of three forest understory birds in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Biotropica, v. 42, n. 3, p. 355-362, 2010.
GROENEVELD, J.; ALVES, L. F.; BERNACCI, L. C.; CATHARINO, E. L. M.; KNOGGE, C.; METZGER, J. P.; PUETZ, S.; HUTH, A. The impact of fragmentation and density regulation on forest succession in the Atlantic rain forest. ECOLOGICAL MODELLING, v. 220, n. 19, p. 2450-2459, OCT 10 2009. Web of Science Citations: 41.
FREITAS, SIMONE R.; TEIXEIRA, ANA MARIA G.; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. Study of the relationship between roads, relief, land use, and natural vegetation in the Ibiuna Plateau - SP, focusing on landscape ecology. NATUREZA & CONSERVAÇÃO, v. 7, n. 2, p. 136-148, OCT 2009. Web of Science Citations: 0.
METZGER, JEAN PAUL; MARTENSEN, ALEXANDRE CAMARGO; DIXO, MARIANNA; BERNACCI, LUIS CARLOS; RIBEIRO, MILTON CEZAR; GODOY TEIXEIRA, ANA MARIA; PARDINI, RENATA. Time-lag in biological responses to landscape changes in a highly dynamic Atlantic forest region. Biological Conservation, v. 142, n. 6, SI, p. 1166-1177, JUN 2009. Web of Science Citations: 191.
TEIXEIRA, ANA MARIA G.; SOARES-FILHO, BRITALDO S.; FREITAS, SIMONE R.; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. Modeling landscape dynamics in an Atlantic Rainforest region: Implications for conservation. FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, v. 257, n. 4, p. 1219-1230, FEB 20 2009. Web of Science Citations: 88.
UEHARA-PRADO, MARCIO; FREITAS, ANDRE V. L. The effect of rainforest fragmentation on species diversity and mimicry ring composition of ithomiine butterflies. Insect Conservation and Diversity, v. 2, n. 1, p. 23-28, FEB 2009. Web of Science Citations: 15.
QUITETE PORTELA, RITA DE CASSIA; MAES DOS SANTOS, FLAVIO ANTONIO. Mortality and mechanical damage of seedlings in different size fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Tropical Ecology, v. 50, n. 2, p. 267-275, WIN 2009. Web of Science Citations: 9.
DA SILVA, WILLIAM GOULART; METZGER, JEAN PAUL; BERNACCI, LUIS CARLOS; MARTINS CATHARINO, EDUARDO LUIS; DURIGAN, GISELDA; SIMOES, SILVIO. Relief influence on tree species richness in secondary forest fragments of Atlantic Forest, SE, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica, v. 22, n. 2, p. 589-598, APR-JUN 2008. Web of Science Citations: 10.
GISELDA DURIGAN; LUÍS CARLOS BERNACCI; GERALDO ANTONIO DAHER CORREA FRANCO; GÉZA DE FARIA ARBOCZ; JEAN PAUL METZGER; EDUARDO LUÍS MARTINS CATHARINO. Estádio sucessional e fatores geográficos como determinantes da similaridade florística entre comunidades florestais no Planalto Atlântico, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica, v. 22, n. 1, p. 51-62, Mar. 2008.
AWADE‚ M.; METZGER‚ J.P. Using gap-crossing capacity to evaluate functional connectivity of two Atlantic rainforest birds and their response to fragmentation. AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, v. 33, n. 7, p. 863-871, 2008. Web of Science Citations: 64.
MARTENSEN‚ A.C.; PIMENTEL‚ R.G.; METZGER‚ J.P. Relative effects of fragment size and connectivity on bird community in the Atlantic Rain Forest: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation, v. 141, n. 9, p. 2184-2192, 2008. Web of Science Citations: 113.
RITA DE CÁSSIA QUITETE PORTELA; FLAVIO ANTONIO MAËS DOS SANTOS. Produção e espessura da serapilheira na borda e interior de fragmentos florestais de Mata Atlântica de diferentes tamanhos. BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, v. 30, n. 2, p. 271-280, Jun. 2007.
BRAGAGNOLO‚ C.; NOGUEIRA‚ A.A.; PINTO-DA-ROCHA‚ R.; PARDINI‚ R. Harvestmen in an Atlantic forest fragmented landscape: Evaluating assemblage response to habitat quality and quantity. Biological Conservation, v. 139, n. 3, p. 389-400, 2007.
DANILO BOSCOLO; JEAN PAUL METZGER; JACQUES M.E. VIELLIARD. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v. 78, n. 4, p. -, Dez. 2006.
ALVES, LUCIANA F.; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. A regeneração florestal em áreas de floresta secundária na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, Cotia, SP. Biota Neotropica, v. 6, n. 2 2006.
CATHARINO, EDUARDO LUÍS MARTINS; BERNACCI, LUÍS CARLOS; FRANCO, GERALDO ANTONIO DAHER CORRÊA; DURIGAN, GISELDA; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. Aspectos da composição e diversidade do componente arbóreo das florestas da Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, Cotia, SP. Biota Neotropica, v. 6, n. 2 2006.
DIXO, MARIANNA; VERDADE, VANESSA KRUTH. Herpetofauna de serrapilheira da Reserva Florestal de Morro Grande, Cotia (SP). Biota Neotropica, v. 6, n. 2 2006.
METZGER, JEAN PAUL; ALVES, LUCIANA F.; GOULART, WILLIAM; TEIXEIRA, ANA MARIA DE GODOY; SIMÕES, SÍLVIO JORGE C.; CATHARINO, EDUARDO LUÍS MARTINS. Uma área de relevante interesse biológico, porém pouco conhecida: a Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande. Biota Neotropica, v. 6, n. 2 2006.
METZGER, JEAN PAUL; ALVES, LUCIANA F.; PARDINI, RENATA; DIXO, MARIANNA; NOGUEIRA, ANDRÉ DO AMARAL; NEGRÃO, MÔNICA DE FARIA FRANCO; MARTENSEN, ALEXANDRE CAMARGO; CATHARINO, EDUARDO LUÍS MARTINS. Características ecológicas e implicações para a conservação da Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande. Biota Neotropica, v. 6, n. 2 2006.
NEGRÃO, MÔNICA DE FARIA FRANCO; VALLADARES-PÁDUA, CLÁUDIO. Registros de mamíferos de maior porte na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, São Paulo. Biota Neotropica, v. 6, n. 2 2006.
NOGUEIRA, ANDRÉ DO AMARAL; PINTO-DA-ROCHA, RICARDO; BRESCOVIT, ANTONIO D. Comunidade de aranhas orbitelas (Araneae, Arachnida) na região da Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, Cotia, São Paulo, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, v. 6, n. 2 2006.
PIVELLO, VÂNIA REGINA; PETENON, DANIELA; JESUS, FLÁVIA MORAES DE; MEIRELLES, SÉRGIO TADEU; VIDAL, MARIANA MORAIS; ALONSO, REGINA DE AZEVEDO SOARES; FRANCO, GERALDO ANTÔNIO DAHER CORRÊA; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. Chuva de sementes em fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica (São Paulo, SP, Brasil), sob diferentes situações de conectividade, estrutura florestal e proximidade da borda. Acta Botanica Brasilica, v. 20, n. 4, p. 845-859, out.-dez. 2006.
PARDINI, RENATA; SOUZA, SERGIO MARQUES DE; BRAGA-NETO, RICARDO; METZGER, JEAN PAUL. The role of forest structure, fragment size and corridors in maintaining small mammal abundance and diversity in an Atlantic forest landscape. Biological Conservation, v. 124, n. 2, p. 253-266, July 2005.
UEZU‚ A.; METZGER‚ J.P.; VIELLIARD‚ J.M.E. Effects of structural and functional connectivity and patch size on the abundance of seven Atlantic Forest bird species. Biological Conservation, v. 123, n. 4, p. 507-519, 2005.
UEHARA-PRADO, MARCIO; FREITAS, ANDRÉ VICTOR LUCCI; FRANCIN, RONALDO BASTOS; BROWN JR, KEITH SPALDING. Guia das borboletas frugívoras da Reserva Estadual do Morro Grande e região de Caucaia do Alto, Cotia (São Paulo). Biota Neotropica, v. 4, n. 1, p. 0-0, 2004.
PORTELA, RITA DE CÁSSIA QUITETE; SANTOS, FLAVIO ANTONIO MAËS DOS. Alometria de plântulas e jovens de espécies arbóreas: copa x altura. Biota Neotropica, v. 3, n. 2, p. 0-0, 2003.

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