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The toy in the childlike education as promoter of the cultures of the childhood and humanization

Grant number: 08/07808-5
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): March 01, 2009
Effective date (End): July 31, 2010
Field of knowledge:Humanities - Education - Educational Teaching and Learning
Principal Investigator:José Milton de Lima
Grantee:Larissa Aparecida Trindade dos Santos
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FCT). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Presidente Prudente. Presidente Prudente , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The toy in the childlike education as promoter of the cultures of the childhood.In this research toys are regarded as a social object whose origin may differ according to different social-cultural contexts. They are seen as a representative element full of cultural meanings which express not only concerns but also social, economic, cultural, and political aspects of a certain society. When manipulating toys, children get in touch with reality, play with life questions and challenges, and acquire learning about the world by rereading it. Toys can also connect generations with affectivity links when children are given them in interaction situations. Considering the educational importance toys have in themselves, an investigation about the way they have been being used in preschools in Presidente Prudente was set as the central aim of this research. Thus the intention is: verifying how and how often toys have been part of educational practice; identifying in what manner the concepts of play, children, and children education are understood by the interviewed teachers; and finally, pointing out some ideas which may be useful to improve a renewed educational practice based on the historical-cultural approach as well as on a pedagogy that values childhood cultures. Being this a qualitative kind of research, explanatory and descriptive approaches were elected as methodological procedures since they allow bringing up hidden aspects in some contexts. Also participative observation, semi-structured interview and bibliographic analysis are used as investigation resources, based on the studies of Brougère (1995;2004), Sarmento (2004), Benjamin (2002), Elkonin (1998), Oliveira (1986;1989), Leontiev (1988), among others. In spite of being related to play (preschool children's main activity according to the historical-cultural approach), and also an instrument that enhances intellectual, motor, emotional, aesthetic, and social development, as well as capable of bringing up children's concerns and skills, toys have not been properly used by preschool teachers as one of children's languages, among others, and of great importance for children's identity, culture, and learning acquiring. Finally, to fulfill the idea of this research, the investigation results will turn into proposals aiming to surpass the trends which deal with toys in a reductive way and use them as a resource just for distracting and occupying children besides keeping them quiet while, sometimes, teachers occupy themselves with other school tasks. The use of toys as a language requires effective planning and intentionality to attend childhood requirements and needs. And their appropriate use by means of interactive activities between children and teachers, and among peers, will allow preschool students to incorporate cultural aspects which are indispensable for their personality and human capability full development. (AU)

Academic Publications
(References retrieved automatically from State of São Paulo Research Institutions)
SANTOS, Larissa Aparecida Trindade dos. O brinquedo na educação infantil como promotor das culturas da infância e humanização. 2010. 170 f. Master's Dissertation - Universidade Estadual Paulista. Faculdade Ciências e Tecnologia. Presidente Prudente.

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