One of the most active areas in human genetics and medicine is the adult and embryonic stem cells study. These cells, particularly the embryonic, are characterized by high cellular plasticity; therefore, with great potential to produce several tissues. The adult stem cells can be obtained from several sources, such as: umbilical cord, dental pulp, adipose tissue, muscle, etc. However, the embryonic cells can be obtained only from the internal mass of the blastocyst, which origins the embryo. It is very important to elucidate which genes enable the plasticity of these cells. Some works showed the ability of some genes to transform a differentiated cell in a cell with the same properties as embryonic stem cells. However, the networks involved in this process still are little known. So as, if these genes are the only ones to lead differentiated adult cell to reacquire the differentiation potential.Recently, we demonstrated that gain-of-function mutations in FGFR2 gene predispose periosteum cells from Apert Sindrome patients to differentiate in to bone tissue. In other study we sought genes involved with the causes of non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCL/P) using dental pulp cells expression. The results of both works with microarray and of already published studies of embryonic stem cells gene expression, consist in a great information source for the network modeling which regulate the cellular plasticity mechanism.To better understand these networks, the main goal of this study are:* To identify signaling networks important to cellular plasticity;* To verify if networks that enable plasticity to the stem cells are the same networks that promote the differentiation of Apert cells in to bone tissue.
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