An assessment of water quality of the Piracicaba River was performed using different methodologies and organisms, and therefore, from February 2011 to January 2012 water samples were collected at six sampling sites along the Piracicaba River. Physical chemical parameters of the water were measured and demonstred low water quality according to the conductivity and biochemical oxygen in places close to Americana and Piracicaba. Effects on the reproduction of Ceriodaphinia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii were observed in February and March 2011, and January 2012 and occurred in samples collected close to Americana and Piracicaba cities. Evaluation of the gills of Danio rerio showed no significant difference during all months, except in February, September and October for some locations. During the study period, water samples collected in all sampling sites and months presented values of chlorophyll a below the limit set by the Brazilian environmental law. Water collected in October and November and those sampled at points 3 and 4 presented higher values of throfic state index than the other sites and months, however, were not classified as euthrofic. Concentrations of atrazine and ametrine during the sampling period were also measured and ranged from 0.11 to 1.92 µg*L-1 and from 0.25 to 1.44 µg*L-1, respectively, and showed genotoxic and mutagenic potentials to D. rerio. A study evaluating the acute toxicity of vinasse before and after the pH correction was conducted due to the influence of sugar cane cultures on the Piracicaba River area. The results confirmed the high acute toxicity of vinasse to aquatic organisms, however, this can be reduced by correcting its pH to 6.5.
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