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Salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol responses during training and official matches in young soccer players

Grant number: 10/13084-0
Support Opportunities:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): March 01, 2011
Effective date (End): February 28, 2013
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Physical Education
Principal Investigator:Alexandre Moreira
Grantee:Camila Gobo de Freitas
Host Institution: Escola de Educação Física e Esporte (EEFE). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil


There has been a substantial increase in research dedicated to determining the relationship between fitness level, immune function and steroids hormones. Among distinct approaches and research designs, there are those that aimed to investigate the relationship between hormonal changes and mucosal immunity, as well as, the impact of these parameters on the incidence and susceptibility to contracting upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and changes in performance. The adaptation to physical or psychological stress usually involves the activation of the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing-hormone, anterior pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone, and adrenal glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) in anticipation of or during stressful situations understanding as a homeostatic response of the body. Among the hormones reacting to exercise and stress, cortisol is probably the more affected. Due to altered circulating levels with different forms of exercise, cortisol has been used to determine the physiological and psychological stress imposed during single and repeated exercise sessions. It has been proposed that metabolic stress stimulates the HPA, leading to an increased secretion of hormones such adrenocroticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, consistent with the increased susceptibility to contracting URTI. Various authors have utilized the salivary concentrations of immunoglobulin A (SIgA) to investigate the relationship between exercise training load, immune function and URTI incidence. Levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) are lower in athletes engaged in heavy training. It has been suggested that changes in concentration of SIgA also may act as a marker of excessive training. In addition, psychological stress is also thought to influence mucosal immune function. Sustained periods of psychological stress have been associated with reduction in SIgA concentrations. Salivary immunoglobulin A concentration and secretion rate has been show to correlate more closely with URTI than changes in serum antibodies or other immune parameters. Although the implications of an observed impact on SIgA and salivary cortisol levels following heavy exercise are of great interest to sport scientists, relatively few data have been obtained in a true environment setting among young team sports athletes, particularly in respect of SIgA and cortisol acute responses from training or official matches. Therefore, the aims of the present study are 1) to assess possible changes in SIgA and salivary cortisol after training and competitive sessions in young soccer players belonged to two distinct ages (under-15 and under-17 yr), 2) examine the impact of relative age, maturation status and anthropometric variables on salivary responses, and, 3)examine the influence of perceived stress on salivary parameters during training and official matches, and 4) verify whether changes in SIgA expressions after simulated and official matches could predict URTI occurrences. (AU)

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Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
FREITAS, CAMILA G.; AOKI, MARCELO S.; FRANCISCON, CLOVIS A.; ARRUDA, ADEMIR F. S.; CARLING, CHRISTOPHER; MOREIRA, ALEXANDRE. Psychophysiological Responses to Overloading and Tapering Phases in Elite Young Soccer Players. PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE, v. 26, n. 2, p. 195-202, . (10/13084-0, 10/12489-6)
FREITAS, CAMILA G.; AOKI, MARCELO S.; ARRUDA, ADEMIR F. S.; FRANCISCON, CLOVIS; MOREIRA, ALEXANDRE. Monitoring Salivary Immunoglobulin A Responses to Official and Simulated Matches In Elite Young Soccer Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, v. 53, n. 1, p. 107-115, . (10/13084-0, 10/12489-6)
Academic Publications
(References retrieved automatically from State of São Paulo Research Institutions)
FREITAS, Camila Gobo de. Salivary immunoglobulin A, cortisol and behavior measures during training and competition in young soccer players. 2013. Master's Dissertation - Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Escola de Educação Física e Esportes (EEFE/BT) São Paulo.

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