Background: Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with several disorders of health in humans and one of the most important is the jeopardizing of bone formation. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no information about the influence of diabetes on orthodontic and orthopedic treatment at cellular and molecular levels. Objective: The aim of this study will be to evaluate the bone remodeling process in palatal suture during orthopedic mecanotherapy in rats with diabetes mellitus type 1 -induced. Material and Methods: Two hundred and forty Wistar male rats will be randomly assigned to eight groups with 30 animals each. Control Groups: normal (N), citrate buffer carrier (C), streptozotocin type 1 diabetes mellitus-induced (D) and streptozotocin type 1 diabetes mellitus-induced treated with insulin therapy (DI). Experimental Groups: normal with rapid maxillary orthopedic expansion (NE), streptozotocin type 1 diabetes mellitus-induced with rapid maxillary orthopedic expansion (DE) and streptozotocin type 1 diabetes mellitus-induced treated with insulin therapy associated with rapid maxillary orthopedic expansion (DIE). The animals will be euthanized at 3, 7 and 10 days after orthopedic treatment. Histologic evaluations, changes in genes and proteins expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANK, RANKL, osteonectin (ONC), osteocalcin (OCC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN) and bone morphognetic protein-2 (BMP-2) will be evaluated along with the changes in body weight, water intake and maxillary suture expansion rates. Real-Time PCR will be used to amplify the cDNA of OPG, RANK, RANK-L, OCC, ONC, BMP-2, BSP and OPN genes that will be analyzed on the Sequence Detection Software vl.3. These results will be confirmed by protein expression evaluation using Western Blotting. Data will be analyzed according to normal or non-normal distribution using two way ANOVA or Kruskal Wallis test, respectively (± = 0.05).
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