Leptospirosis is a important zoonosis to public health and to animal health, accounting for 1.2 million dollars in hospital expenses per annum, for reproductive problems and decline of animal husbandry. The aim of this work is to study the infection of Leptospira spp. in several species of wildlife animals, in domestic animals and in humans beings in 10 Brazilian biomes. The study will be conducted between March 2011 and December 2014. Three counties will be selected in each of the following biomes: Amazon, Caatinga, Pampas, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pantanal and the Coastal Zone. One municipality will be selected in each of the three transitional areas (Cerrado-Amazonia, Caatinga-Cerrado and Caatinga, Amazon). In each region will be considered one farm. In the different biomes to be studied, it is intended to capture rodents, small carnivores, marsupials, species who living in frequent contact with domestic animals and human beings in small properties. In each farm, samples from blood and urine will be taken of no more than 15 wildlife animals. For domestic animals, will be simple random sampling, and sample size required will be obtained for a confidence level of 95%, absolute error of 10% and expected prevalence according to species and region; in properties where there are 15 individuals or less, will be sampled blood and urine of all individuals. In humans, will be harvested by a physician or nurse, blood and urine of all individuals present in each property. As a diagnosis, will be held microscopic agglutination test and, in parallel, techniques for the isolation of Leptospira spp. of urine samples and, in case of death of animals, in samples of organs. Of urine and organs will also be made direct immunofluorescence test. In samples of which are isolated leptospires will be held the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to identify the serovar of Leptospira spp.
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