Microorganisms are present in great diversity and abundance in soil. However, human activities have caused changes in the structure of organisms communities, mainly by changing the gases flow from soil, which has increased significantly. The culture of sugar cane, quite intense in the State of São Paulo, still is little studied in relation to the emission of gases. Thus, the goal of the project is to evaluate the activity and diversity of bacterial communities related to the emission of gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), in soils under cultivation of sugarcane, relating them to some physico-chemical and biological properties of soil. Laboratory tests will be carried out under controlled conditions to assess the effect of temperature and humidity in gases emission and soil microbiota. In addition, are sampled two areas of soqueira of sugarcane in Piracicaba, SP, containing the following treatments: three doses of straw sugar cane applied over the surface of the soil (0, 12 and 18 t ha-1 straw), with or without application of vinasse, and two doses of N (100 and 150 kgha-1), in the form of ammonium nitrate and a control treatment - without N. Soil sampling will be conducted for analysis of genetic diversity of the communities of nitrifying bacteria, desnitrifying, methanotrophic and methanogenic and soil attributes, such as fertility, carbon and nitrogen of microbial biomass, functional diversity, basal respiration, quantification of specific communities of bacteria linked to gases emissions and soil enzymes. The results shall be submitted to analysis of variance and test averages and the multivariate statistical analysis for main components analysis (PCA) and simple linear correlation, by Pearson test, between soil and characteristics studied.
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