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Acoustic vocal changes related to the process of senility of voice

Grant number: 11/10683-2
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): November 01, 2011
Effective date (End): October 31, 2012
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Medicine
Principal researcher:Regina Helena Garcia Martins
Grantee:Flávia Canale Cabral
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FMB). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Botucatu. Botucatu , SP, Brazil

Abstract

1- Introduction Epidemiological dates in Brazil show an increase in life expectancy and reduced birth rates, resulting in a greater number of elderly in the country. It is estimated that by 2020 life expectancy is 70.3 years, corresponding to an elderly population of 30 million people. In addition, the elderly are becoming increasingly independent and active. As a result, increased investments are needed in various areas related to the group. In health, the knowledge of the diseases most prevalent in the age group it is imperative to propose preventive measures and more effective treatments, ensuring these individuals better quality of life.The presbyphonia is the natural process of aging voice. Several changes in the laryngeal structure are part of this process, for example muscle atrophy, calcification of cartilage, joints decreased neuromotor, decrease in mucous glands and reduction of extracellular matrix components of the lamina propria. In elderly population, the pitch of man's voice becomes higher and of women s voice lower.Such changes in fundamental frequency are associated with the tremor and instability of the phonation. The presbyphonia can lead to the earlier phase of the professional and leisure activities and development of studies about it is important in order to prevent them.2. ObjectivesTo analyse the vocal acoustic features related to senility.3. Patients and MethodsAfter approval by the Ethics in Human Research, Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu (protocol 3674-2010), 45 subjects aged 60 to 90 years were invited to participate to the study. They must sign a consent form .These will be divided into three groups: 60 to 70 years; 71 to 80 and 81 to 90 years, containing 15 individuals each, of which. After completing the questionary of the research (containing identification data, habits and addictions, treatment of respiratory, neurological, metabolic, gastrointestinal, autoimmune, skin, medications taken, vocal and auditory symptoms), they will undergo vocal perceptiva analysis (GRBASI scale), vocal acoustic analysis (program MDVP-Speech 3700 (Kaypentax), recorded the following parameters: fundamental frequency (For), jitter percentage, PPQ - Pitch Perturbation Quotient, Percentage of Shimmer, APQ - Amplitude Perturbation Quotient, NHR - Harmonic Noise Ratio, SPI - Soft Phonation Index. Volunteers will also be evaluated for hearing acuity (Audiometer-tone audiometry and tympanometry Amplaid), and to videolaryngoscopic exams. For this purpose, rigid telescope is used (ASAP), 70 °, 8mm coupled to a multifunctional system (video system type XE-30, X -TFT/USB Eco - Germany) and a strobe source (Atmos), with a recorded image DVD.Will be excluded subjects with comorbid conditions that could compromise the vocal qualities such as smoking, autoimmune diseases, respiratory, neurological or profound deafness.Will include a control group consisting of volunteers from 30 to 50 years, with no vocal symptoms in both sexes, which obey the same exclusion criteria of the elderly group and will be subject to the same sequence of Predictive scores of the sample group.The results obtained in both groups are expressed in tables and graphs and statistical analysis will.4.Metodologia statisticalThe samples obtained from the quantitative analysis are expressed as mean ± SD and will be evaluated according to the distribution of morphological changes of patients and controls. The descriptive analysis will be demonstrated by the ANOVA test, which will be applied to determine differences between groups. When necessary, we will use the test applied to Turkey to identify the differences between the measures. The significance of p will be set at d 0.05.

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