Since the 1970s Francisco de Oliveira is a reference for people dedicated to understanding the Brazilian society. In the set of his extensive work stand out papers on the national economy, published in that decade, their interventions on the challenges of democratic opening, in the 1980s, and the criticism directed to the reception of neo-liberalism in Brasil since the turn of the century. Although important, this trend has not received the deserved attention of researchers in the Brazilian social thought. This paper aims to fill this gap and contribute to the analysis of texts produced by this important intellectual. One of the hypotheses guiding this research is that the work of Francisco de Oliveira does not reflect only his personal trajectory. As a result of its special relationship with the office of a sociologist, which is always linked to a militant and critical task, the author has produced texts that mirror, in particular, the transformations undergone by the country and the crises faced by a portion of the social sciences from mainly the second half of the twentieth century. It is expected therefore that the reconstruction of the debates which always paid their trials also provide subsidies to the analysis of the last thirty years of national history and the characteristics of Brazilian intellectual production performed in the same period.
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