Changes in dietary patterns and physical activity of populations have contributed to elevate the incidence of non-communicable chronic diseases, mainly those associated with increased adiposity. This picture tends to increase cardiovascular mortality motivating health experts to take preventive measures. Studies have showed that populations that consume the typical Mediterranean diet have lower cardiovascular disease mortality. The benefits of this high-fiber and high-unsaturated fat diet derived in part from the effects of these nutrients on the inflammatory status that precedes metabolic diseases and atherosclerosis. This study assess the effects of a single meal change of Brazilian menu in order to approximate to the precepts of the Mediterranean diet, on lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as on subclinical inflammation and expression of proinflammatory genes. This is cross-over open trial with a 10-week duration. Overweight adults without diabetes will be included. Participants will undergo two 4-week breakfast interventions in random order, with wash-out of two weeks between them. Isocaloric breakfasts (typically Brazilian and mediterranized) will differ according to fiber and fatty acids contents. Before and at the end of each intervention, they will be submitted to an acute test consisted of a breakfast with distinct fatty acids composition (rich in saturated or in unsaturated fat) depending on the intervention. Challenge tests include basal and blood sample collections from 0 to 240 minutes for plasma glucose, insulin, lipids and inflammatory markers determinations; areas under the curves will be calculated. Expression of certain pro-inflammatory genes in leukocytes before and after each intervention will be analyzed. Student t test or the corresponding non-parametric test will be employed and p <0.05 considered significant.
News published in Agência FAPESP Newsletter about the scholarship: