Melasma is a chronic acquired hypermelanosis, characterized by the appearance of irregular macules, symmetrical, well-defined, with variation of light brown to grayish brown. It affects sun-exposed areas of the integument, especially the face.. It affects both genders, but in a higher ratio (10:1), women between 30 and 55 years, during the menacme.Is associated with a wide variety of triggering factors. The variables are well established, sun exposure, skin protection, hormonal factors and family. But still not controlled epidemiological studies were conducted on other risk factors such as alcohol use, smoking, caffeine, use of medicines, cosmetics, ethnicity and anxiety state.This project aims to evaluate the risk factors for development of facial melasma in Brazilian women. In addition to describing constitutional, ethnic, family parentage, traces of anxiety, photoprotection and sun exposure characteristics.To do so, will be conducted a case-control study type, paired, involving female subjects, with adults over 18 years, voluntary, informed and in agreement. The cases will be determined by the presence of facial melasma, clinically proven by a titled dermatologist.The controls will be defined with professionals who works on the University Campus of Unesp-Botucatu, without presence or history of prior facial melasma. Controls will be paired with each case, according to gender and age.The main dependent variable will be the presence of facial melasma. The independent variables are grouped into hierarchical levels: constitutional and family data, sun exposure and sun protection, variables related to hormonal and anxiety traits, evaluated using the IDATE-T questionnaire.Categorical data will be represented by their percentage proportions and compared between groups using the chi-square or chi-square test for tendency. Later, , will be developed a model of comparative risk between cases and controls from multiple conditional logistic regression in hierarchical basis. Data will be tabulated in MSExcel 2007 for further analysis by software SPSS 17.0. Will be considered significant two-tailed p value < 0.05.The sample size will be based on pre-test with 50 cases and 50 controls and calculated for a final model of multiple logistic regression, estimated its "power" of 0.8 and bilateral alpha level of 0.05. It is estimated 200 cases and 200 controls for project conclusion.
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