Since its conception, biological and psychosocial factors act in conjunction in the developmental process, allowing the individual to a healthy development. The literature points out various risk and protective factors on early development. The risk factors are biological, environmental or contextual variables, which increase the probability of occurrence of some adverse impact on development. On one hand, the protective factors are the personal or social resources which decrease and/or neutralize the impact of risk. Similarly to risk factors, protective mechanisms may be found in the family, in the social environment, or the intrinsic resources of the individual making him/her able to deal with adversities. Among these factors, the mother is a distinctive mediator factor of the child's development. Appropriate care has a positive impact on the health of the child, minimizing the impact of adverse factors, either the biological, environmental or even social disadvantage. The literature points out that the ability of the mother as a caregiver seems to be dependent upon her level of schooling, state of health, and out of home occupation. There is an ongoing discussion about positive or negative impact on the development and behavior of a child whose mother works in the community, intrinsically associated to existing alternatives of care. Currently, there is a growing interest of parents, educators, and politicians in evaluate the possible longitudinal impact and school performance of children who attend nursery. The empirical data remain ambiguous. In this sense, the current study has the goal of evaluate the neuropsychomotor and the behavior problems of children at ages 2 and 3 years old, attending nursery, seeking to identify risk and protective factors. The psychomotor development of the children will be assessed through the administration of the test Denver II, and the behavior problems will be evaluated by the mother and the caregiver of the nursery, through the use of the CBCL - Behavior Inventory for children of ½ to 5 years old. The mother will also answer questions in an interview focused on the identification of socio demographic characteristics, and the history of the child and the family. The results will be presented in a descriptive format, providing means to analyse the associations and establishing risk and protective factors on development.
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