In recent decades, the cancer won a larger dimension, making it an evident public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that by the year 2030, can be expected 27 million cases of cancer, 17 million cancer deaths and 75 million people living annually with cancer in the world. Actually, the mechanisms of counterattack are shared by normal cells and tumor cells. Cisplatin is a potent antineoplasic drug widely used for the treatment of cancer, both in adults and in children, including the treatment of lung cancer, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. However, many times it is necessary to discontinue the treatment with this drug because of side effects that can cause, such as systemic toxicity. This toxicity consists mainly nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, and acquired resistance to the drug after a certain time of administration. An alternative to direct the drug to its site of action, reducing the distribution of active molecules in the organism and consequent reduction of systemic toxicity, is the association with drug carrier systems. Nanomaterials by their small size (<100 nm) may have a higher permeability through the skin, mucous and cell membranes. Due to the growing industry of nanomaterials presenting applications in many areas, including medical, this study aims to evaluate possible reduction of nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity of cisplatin functionalized nanoparticles of yttrium vanadate in melanomas induced in C57BL/6 mice.
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