The family Hylodidae contains 42 species allocated in the genera Crossodactylus (11 species),Hylodes (24 species) and Megaelosia (7 species). These species inhabit streams with small waterfalls in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, occurring from Alagoas to Rio Grande do Sul States in Brazil, reaching Misiones, Argentina. Due to adaptations to waterfall environments, a plesiomorphic morphological packet was kept resulting in cryptic species. Some of these species occur in sympatry, hindering the resolution of the family taxonomy. Phylogenies involving the family have been proposed, butthe results were considerably different. These phylogenetic proposals suggest 12 families as closely related to Hylodidae: Allophrynidae, Aromobatidae, Bufonidae, Centrolenidae, Ceratophryidae, Cycloramphidae, Dendrobatidae, Hemiphractidae, Hylidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae and Strabomantidae. These previous studies had no specific goal to resolve the internal relationships of Hylodidae and consequently few representatives of the family were included in these phylogenies. The aim of the present project is to identify the position of the family Hylodidae among the 12 families selected as outgroups, as well as recognizing the phylogenetic relationships among the species. For the analyses there will be used both morphological (adult and tadpole) and molecular characters. Based on these data, we intend to establish hypotheses about the evolutionary history of the group, which may be associated largely with the history and relationships of rivers and watersheds to which all family representatives are highly associated.
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