Orange rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia kuehnii, has been the newest and one of the most dangerous problems faced by sugarcane industry in Brazil due to yield loss it caused in susceptible varieties in other countries. Soon after its first outbreak in Brazil in 2009, susceptible varieties were readily identified and their multiplications in the field stop. Nevertheless, a severe epidemic occurred in 2012 on SP81-3250, the second most important variety in Brazil. This fact has brought to light a crucial aspect to be answered for the success of orange rust control, that is, was a new physiological race responsible for this outbreak on SP81-3250, a variety considered not susceptible previously? The existence of races in P. kuehnii has not been clarified due to different results in other countries. Thus, the present work aims to investigate the occurrence of physiological races in P. kuehnii in São Paulo state.
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