The GBV-C, also called hepatitis G virus (HGV) is a RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and has similar genome to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). No diseases were related to the presence of GBV-C and recent studies have shown positive association between GBV-C and HIV viruses. Previous studies of our group revealed the importance to understand this co-infection. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between incident infection by GBV-C and decreased expression of activation markers in people living with HIV. Samples from patiens of the Laboratory of Medical Investigation 60, Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, University of São Paulo will be selected for the study. Patients included in the study will be newly infected with HIV. To test recent HIV seroconversion in these patients the algorithm seroconversion test for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) will be applied and those with ELISA HIV positive test will be excluded from the study . The counting of CD4 + and CD8 + will be by labeling with monoclonal antibodies to molecules CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD45 conjugated with fluorochromes. Added to this, the profile of cell activation will be obtained by staining lymphocytes with antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD38, HLA-DR and CCR5. For this purpose cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from individuals infected with HIV-1 will be used and the presence of GBV-C will be determined using RNA tests and the viral load of HIV and GBV-C will be analyzed by commercial kits. Finally, the presence of CCR5*32 deletion in the co-infected people will be evaluated, since its presence may be an indicative of immune responses positive regulation in recently infected HIV patients. Therefore, high prevalence of GBV-C in these patients shows a relationship of positive viral interaction, and has a negative impact in the progression of HIV infection.
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