Trypoxylon (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) is a diverse genus of solitary wasps that supply brood cells with paralyzed wasps. Population genetics of this group of wasps is poorly known. Our previous reports showed that Trypoxylon albitarse populations are structured, suggesting limited gene flow. However, evidences were found that these wasps have a high dispersion ability. This apparent contradiction requires an explanation. Here, we want to test the assumption that the population structuring observed can be partially explained if we consider that local populations are formed by few familial groups. If colonization of a new area is made by a reduced number of females and if the population growth is due to the satellite nests founded by their daughters, what we are analyzing is a reduced number of familial maternal groups. So, local populations would show a significant level of genetic differentiation partially due to the daughter´s phylopatric behavior to nesting close to its natal nest. To test our hypothesis, each female previously genotyped for its microsatellite alleles will have its mitochondrial genes sequenced. This analysis will allow us to estimate the number of mitochondrial haplotypes found in each local population; we expect to find few and exclusive haplotypes in some local populations due to the "founder effect" condition in each new colonization event.
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