Stem cells (SC) has been the major focus of research in regenerative medicine. They can bring hope of therapy and cure of serious diseases, primarily due to its ability to self-renewal and differentiation.The adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from lots of different tissues such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, dental pulp, muscle, adipose tissue, uterine tube, the orbicularis oris muscle, villus placental chorionic and menstrual blood.According to Baglio et. al. (2012), the predominant mechanism by which MSCs work in tissue repair would be related to their paracrine activity, creating a microenvironment with trophic and survival signals (with cytokines and growth factors secreted by them). Accordingly, the evaluation of the therapeutic potential of the secretome of these cells is of great interest.For nearly a decade our laboratory work with MSCs and important comparative studies were performed in vivo, particularly with stem cells from adipose tissue (HASC - human adipose stem cell) and umbilical cord (hUCT - human umbilical cord tissue). Even with similar characteristics in vitro, MSCs may be more or less efficient in cell differentiation in vivo, depending on it which niche they are obtained, thus presenting different therapeutic potential, as observed in different studies in our laboratory.Other studies suggest that terminal differentiation is not a major determinant for the success of stem cell therapies, but the mechanism by which these cells contribute to tissue repair is probably the production of trophic factors, cytokines and antioxidants, with capacity modulate immune and inflammatory responses.In conclusion, recent literature shows a growing importance of the paracrine activity of stem cells, and suggests therapeutic potential differences according to the tissue that originated each lineage. Thus, a characterization of the secretome, ie substances secreted by different types of mesenchymal stem cell is essential for a better understanding of different performances and future establishment of its use in more specific robust and secure therapies.
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