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Analysis of myocardial remodeling in mice exposed to air pollution during and after their pregnancy

Grant number: 15/04103-4
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
Effective date (Start): August 01, 2015
Effective date (End): May 31, 2019
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Medicine - Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Pathology
Cooperation agreement: Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES)
Principal Investigator:Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva
Grantee:Adriana Morgan de Oliveira Fonoff
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FM). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Associated scholarship(s):18/01305-3 - Analysis of myocardial remodeling in mice exposed to air pollution during and after their pregnancy, BE.EP.PD

Abstract

According to the World Health Organization, in 2012 there were around 3.7 million global deaths associated with exposure to particulate matter environment. Air pollution is a significant environmental issue in large cities with high population density. Vehicular and industrial emissions stand out among the main responsible for the high levels of air pollutants. In fact, there is a direct relationship between the increase in pollution with the high rate of mortality and morbidity, resulting in an increase in hospital admissions related to heart and lung problems. Numerous studies in the literature have shown that the size of the particulate material and its surface area are decisive to cause inflammatory injury, oxidative damage and other biological effects. This damage is more effective in the fine particles (PM2.5) and the ultrafine particulate matter (PM 2.5) having a higher potential to penetrate into the respiratory tract and can reach the lung alveoli at which 50% of the particulate material will be retained in pulmonary parenchyma. The composition of the particulate material has a wide variety of size and components depends on numerous factors. The higher MW component are transition metal ions (sulfate and nitrate), organic compounds, stable radical quinoides carbonaceous material, minerals and reactive gases materials of biological origin. Toxicological research results showed that the particulate material has numerous harmful mechanisms such as the cell cytotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms, oxidative damage to DNA, mutagenicity and stimulation pro inflammatory factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the structural and geometric remodeling of the heart in C57 wild-type mice after exposure to PM2.5 from the metropolitan region of São Paulo during and after your pregnancy. For that, we have important tools to obtain the results. By morphometric analysis and echocardiography we may analyze the structural myocardial remodeling and check how much it interfered in myocardial function. We will also observe collagen deposition and apoptosis by immunohistochemical technique and confirmation of gene expression by PCR Real Time technique. With the completion of this work, it will be possible to examine whether exposure to urban PM2.5 during and after pregnancy acts on myocardial remodeling. (AU)