Insulin resistance due to obesity is linked to inflammation in several tissues. Although to be a lymphoid tissue, the intestine recognizes and secretes a variety of molecules, but the role of intestinal lamina propria cells in the development of obesity and whether the activation of these cells regulates the development of insulin resistance is still unknown. It is known that during obesity, microbial changes induce increased fermentation and production of short chain fatty acids, which contributes to increased energy uptake and lipid absorption from the intestine, increased intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation which is correlated to insulin resistance development. The importance of studying and understanding the associated factors in the development of obesity is explained by the correlation between obesity and insulin resistance to the development of several diseases and, among them, the progression of kidney disease. Studies showed that there is an association between secretion of inflammatory molecules during obesity/insulin resistance, development of glomerulosclerosis and others kidney diseases. In addition, changes in the metabolism of immune system cells during obesity can be directly correlated with changes in renal function. Also, microbial fermentation products have been shown in the development of kidney injury and this process may be dependent on the gut immune system activation during obesity.
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