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Carnosine metabolism in skeletal muscle: a multi-approach study. Substudy 3: exploring carnosine role in skeletal muscle

Grant number: 15/11328-2
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Post-Doctorate
Effective date (Start): September 01, 2015
Effective date (End): August 31, 2017
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Physical Education
Principal Investigator:Bruno Gualano
Grantee:Eimear Bernadette Dolan
Home Institution: Escola de Educação Física e Esporte (EEFE). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:13/14746-4 - Carnosine metabolism in skeletal muscle: a multi-approach study, AP.TEM

Abstract

Carnosine is a cytoplasmic dipeptide found in high concentrations in the skeletal muscle of both vertebrates and non-vertebrates, and is associated with muscle buffering, sensitivity of calcium release channels and/or calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. It has been shown that the elevation of muscle carnosine concentrations through the dietary intake of carnosine or supplementation with ²-alanine can lead to improved high-intensity exercise performance and capacity, although the mechanism underpinning these improvements remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, whilst there is some suggestion that prolonged high-intensity exercise training can result in increased muscle buffering capacity, it is unknown whether this is due to increased muscle carnosine content. Several important questions relating to carnosine and ²-alanine supplementation remain. Firstly, the upper limit to carnosine concentration in muscle, and concomitant exercise benefits, are currently unknown. Prolonged supplementation with ²-alanine will allow us to provide some answers to these questions, whilst also providing information on the effects of long term supplementation on carnosine related genes. Secondly, the mechanisms contributing to the performance effects of increased muscle carnosine are currently debated within the literature; providing an analysis of the carnosine content of various compartments within the muscle cell (e.g., mitochondria, cytosol, nucleus) would provide evidence to suggest the most likely mechanism contributing to increased exercise performance and capacity. Thirdly, no studies have examined the effects of long-term high-intensity exercise training on increases in muscle carnosine and muscle buffering capacity. As such, we propose here a comprehensive programme of work, comprising three experimental investigations, aimed at gaining some insight into these vitally important questions. Study 1 will investigate the effect of long-term ²-alanine supplementation on peak muscle carnosine concentrations, as well as the associated changes in exercise capacity, carnosine related genes and any potential side effects. The effects of prolonged high-intensity training on muscle buffering capacity and muscle carnosine concentrations, both in whole muscle and single muscle fibres, will be determined in study 2. Study 3 will utilise a comparative physiology design in order to examine the muscle carnosine content of the humming bird, pheasant and human, and will also determine the compartmentalisation of carnosine in the cell. (AU)

Scientific publications (9)
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
DOLAN, EIMEAR; SWINTON, PAUL A.; PAINELLI, VITOR DE SALLES; HEMINGWAY, BENEDICT STEPHENS; MAZZOLANI, BRUNA; SMAIRA, FABIANA INFANTE; SAUNDERS, BRYAN; ARTIOLI, GUILHERME G.; GUALANO, BRUNO. A Systematic Risk Assessment and Meta-Analysis on the Use of Oral beta-Alanine Supplementation. ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, v. 10, n. 3, p. 452-463, MAY 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
DOLAN, EIMEAR; SALE, CRAIG. Protein and bone health across the lifespan. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NUTRITION SOCIETY, v. 78, n. 1, p. 45-55, FEB 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
DOLAN, EIMEAR; GUALANO, BRUNO; RAWSON, ERIC S. Beyond muscle: the effects of creatine supplementation on brain creatine, cognitive processing, and traumatic brain injury. European Journal of Sport Science, v. 19, n. 1, SI, p. 1-14, JAN 2 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
BASSINELLO, DIOGO; PAINELLI, VITOR DE SALLES; DOLAN, EIMEAR; LIXANDRAO, MANOEL; CAJUEIRO, MONIQUE; DE CAPITANI, MARIANA; SAUNDERS, BRYAN; SALE, CRAIG; ARTIOLI, GUILHERME G.; GUALANO, BRUNO; ROSCHEL, HAMILTON. Beta-alanine supplementation improves isometric, but not isotonic or isokinetic strength endurance in recreationally strength-trained young men. Amino Acids, v. 51, n. 1, p. 27-37, JAN 2019. Web of Science Citations: 0.
DOLAN, E.; SAUNDERS, B.; DANTAS, W. S.; MURAI, I. H.; ROSCHEL, H.; ARTIOLI, G. G.; HARRIS, R.; BICUDO, J. E. P. W.; SALE, C.; GUALANO, B. A Comparative Study of Hummingbirds and Chickens Provides Mechanistic Insight on the Histidine Containing Dipeptide Role in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, v. 8, OCT 3 2018. Web of Science Citations: 0.
SWINTON, PAUL A.; HEMINGWAY, BEN STEPHENS; SAUNDERS, BRYAN; GUALANO, BRUNO; DOLAN, EIMEAR. A Statistical Framework to Interpret Individual Response to Intervention : Paving the Way for Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Prescription. FRONTIERS IN NUTRITION, v. 5, MAY 28 2018. Web of Science Citations: 5.
DOLAN, EIMEAR; SWINTON, PAUL A.; SALE, CRAIG; HEALY, AOIFE; O'REILLY, JOHN. Influence of adipose tissue mass on bone mass in an overweight or obese population: systematic review and meta-analysis. NUTRITION REVIEWS, v. 75, n. 10, p. 858-870, OCT 2017. Web of Science Citations: 10.
SAUNDERS, BRYAN; ELLIOTT-SALE, KIRSTY; ARTIOLI, GUILHERME G.; SWINTON, PAUL A.; DOLAN, EIMEAR; ROSCHEL, HAMILTON; SALE, CRAIG; GUALANO, BRUNO. beta-alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, v. 51, n. 8, p. 658+, APR 2017. Web of Science Citations: 33.
DOLAN, EIMEAR; DEB, SANJOY; STEPHEN, GRAEME; SWINTON, PAUL. Brief communication: Self-reported health and activity habits and attitudes in saturation divers. UNDERSEA & HYPERBARIC MEDICINE, v. 43, n. 2, p. 93-101, MAR-APR 2016. Web of Science Citations: 3.

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