The intestinal epithelium of neonates is particularly sensitive area of intestinal mucosa and may have exacerbated inflammatory responses both commensal bacteria and pathogens. Critical newborn admitted in intensive care units are more susceptible to environmental influences, with consequent disorder of the intestinal microbiota and possible proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. Gastroschisis and omphalocele are conditions related to defective closure of the abdominal wall during intrauterine development. Intestinal dismotility or loss antegrade peristalsis complications are often present in these newborns, leading to the use of parenteral nutrition for long periods and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, increasing susceptibility to sepsis. Little is known about the composition of the fecal microbiota of critical babies with intestinal wall defects such as gastroschisis and omphalocele and the relationship of premature babies and the appearance of necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the evolution of the composition of the intestinal microbiota of severe newborns admitted to the NICU during the hospitalization period.
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