Comparative cytogenetic studies provide scenarios of the chromosomal evolution of related taxa and represent an important approach to the identification of chromosomal homologies among species, which is also useful for taxonomic approach. The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of the frogs of the genus Phyllomedusa have been amply discussed. The Phyllomedusa genus is an interesting group within which to conduct comparative cytogenetic analyses. The intrageneric relationships of some of the species remain unclear and many taxonomic questions raises at the species level. The genus Phyllomedusa is currently composed of 31 species, of which 11 have been cytogenetically analysed. Based on morphological features, 26 species have been allocated in four groups of Phyllomedusa: the P. burmeisteri, P. hypochondrialis, P. perinesos, and P. tarsius pecies groups. In this work, our goal is to investigate the karyotypes of two species of the P. hypochondrialis group: P. palliata e P. ayeaye. Based on phyllogenetic analysis, P. palliata species is assigned to the subclade "hypochondrialis" while P. ayeaye to the subclade "megacephala". We will use chromosomal markers for heterochromatin and nucleolus organizing region to better characterize these species and contribute to the understanding of the intrageneric chromosomal evolution in Phyllomedusa.
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