The objective of this research is to investigate, based on theoretical approach of Cultural-Historical Psychology, how occurs the transition between preschool and school age of human development in the current public education conditions, examining whether Early Childhood Education has been able to engender psychological capabilities required for the formation of the (future) study activity. Studies conducted by researchers associated with the field of Cultural-Historical Psychology have identified typical psyche neoformations of preschool age which are psychic premises for the formation of study activity, such as: stable interest in learning; the ability to self-regulation of conduct; the capacity for planned action; and the symbolic function. The first phase of this research will seek to detect, through observation in classroom, the presence of such neoformations in two graduating students of early childhood education; in the second phase of the research, the same two subjects will be observed at the beginning of the first school year of primary education, seeking to analyze whether the school activity mobilizes and develops the psychological capacities highlighted. The relevance of the study is justified because understanding how it the mentioned transition happens in current public schooling conditions could hilight how it could be accomplished in order to boost the mental development of students in their maximum potential, giving basis for improvement of pedagogical practice of professionals working in these segments. After the systematization of data collected, they will be analyzed by adopting as categories the four psychic assumptions categories already indicated, articulated the concept of study activity.
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