Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat in relation to lean tissue mass. It is considered a global epidemic and its incidence and prevalence have progressive increase in recent decades. Its etiology results from the interaction between genetic, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors, being excessive food intake combined with sedentary lifestyle the mainly responsible for the significant increase in this pathology. Comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, cancer, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease are strongly associated with obesity. Studies involving animal models, mostly rodents, have been increasingly used in the investigation of the deleterious effects of the accumulation of adipose tissue on the heart function. This relationship has been analyzed mainly in obese animals by dietary manipulation to represent more appropriately human obesity. The alternatives most used in experimental research to study the disease promoted by obesity are the high-fat diet, however, the results regarding the impact of these diets on the function and structure of the heart are conflicting. In this way , has been questioned the use of high-fat diet, being suggested the use of a "Western" diet, rich in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates, which in addition to promoting obesity and comorbidities, entails more often cardiac deterioration. This type of "Western" feeding can vary as its nutritional composition. In studies found there isn't a balance between lipids and carbohydrates; in some studies the diet is formulated predominantly with carbohydrates and others, with a higher proportion of fat. Recently, "Western" diet rich in saturated fatty acids has been associated with changes in heart function and the replacement of parts of saturated fat, of diet, by simple carbohydrates may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, but the time in which the heart is compromised by the influence of these types of "Western" diets varies in the found studies, possibly due to the proportion of dietary macronutrients, rich in simple sugars or saturated lipids. Therefore, the aim of this project is to evaluate, through the echocardiographic monitoring, the period when obesity induced by "Western" diet, with a predominance of saturated fatty acids or simple carbohydrates, promotes functional and structural deterioration of the heart in rats.
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