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Effects of the exposure of Hydroquinone on the cellular and humoral response induced by immunization against common cold

Grant number: 16/24134-4
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Master
Effective date (Start): April 01, 2017
Effective date (End): December 31, 2018
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Pharmacy
Cooperation agreement: Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES)
Principal Investigator:Sandra Helena Poliselli Farsky
Grantee:André Luis Fabris
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas (FCF). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil


The common cold is a problem of public health in Brazil as it affects a large portion of the population, especially children and the elderly, and the symptoms can be severe, causing even death. Since 1999, yearly immunization against the Influenza virus was implemented for this specific population. The vaccine that is used consists of fragmented and inactivated viruses, consisting in an active process of immunization, and it is produced by Butantan Institute. Studies have shown that the exposure to environmental xenobiotics with possible effects on the immune system, such as cigarette smoke, can compromise the efficacy of active immunization. Our research group has studied the toxic mechanisms of hydroquinone, an immunotoxic agent which can be found in high concentrations in cigarette smoke, and, also, is a toxic metabolite of benzene. Our data show that in vivo exposure of experimentation animals to hydroquinone compromises the function of leukocytes and, also, aggravates rheumatoid arthritis in the same way that it is observed in smokers. Thus, the objective of the present work is to evaluate if the exposure of male C57BL/6 mice to hydroquinone alters the immune response to the vaccine against the Influenza virus. Therefore, the animals will be exposed to hydroquinone (250 or 2500 ppm) daily, for 1 hour, by nebulization in containment boxes for six weeks. In the fourth and sixth week, the animals will be vaccinated, through subcutaneous route, in both sides of the dorsal region with trivalent and fragmented vaccine against Influenza which will be granted by Butantan Institute. The animals will be euthanized 2 weeks after the last immunization and samples will be collected for the following analyses: blood for the characterization of leukocytes by flow cytometry (anti-B220-APC-Cy7, anti-CD3-FITC, anti-Gr-1-FITC, anti-F4/80-FITC, anti-CD138-PE, anti-CD38-APC, anti-GL7-PerCP-Cy5.5 and anti-CD23- PECy7); spleen and lymph nodes for quantification of follicles and germinative centers by indirect immunofluorescence; serum for IgG quantification by Elisa; circulating leukocytes, spleen cells, lymph nodes, bone marrow and bronchoalveolar lavage for enumeration of total and specific IgG secretory cells against Influenza by Elispot. We expect the results to elucidate the toxic mechanisms of hydroquinone and to contribute to the comprehension of the factors responsible for the inefficacy of immunization in a certain part of the population, especially for those individuals who are exposed to cigarette smoke. (AU)

Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
FABRIS, ANDRE LUIS; NUNES, ANDRE VINICIUS; SCHUCH, VIVIANE; DE PAULA-SILVA, MARINA; ROCHA, G. H. O.; NAKAYA, HELDER I.; HO, PAULO LEE; SILVEIRA, EDUARDO L. V.; POLISELLI FARSKY, SANDRA HELENA. Hydroquinone exposure alters the morphology of lymphoid organs in vaccinated C57Bl/6 mice. Environmental Pollution, v. 257, FEB 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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