Additive manufacturing is currently receiving significant attention in the field of tissue engineering and biomaterial science. The development of precise, affordable 3-dimensionally printing technologies has provided a new platform for novel research to be undertaken in 3D scaffold design and fabrication. Thus, the aim of this study will be to evaluate porcine bone marrow-derived progenitor cell (pBMPC) proliferation and penetration into different 3D printed scaffolds designs and micro architecture to increase the neovascularization in the center of the constructs. Materials and Methods: Four groups with different designs and micro architecture tissue engineering scaffolds will be 3D printed from the combination of ²-tricalcium phosphate (²-TCP) and polycaprolactone (PCL) (50:50) with 1-mm channel size. Scaffolds will be fabricated into 20 x 20 x 7-mm blocks by use of a TheriForm machine (Series 3200, Therics Inc, Princeton, NJ). The pBMPCs will be harvested, isolated, expanded, and differentiated into osteoblasts. Cells will be seeded into the scaffolds and constructs will be incubated in a rotational oxygen-permeable bioreactor system for 14 days, to evaluate cell proliferation and penetration in the whole construct.Analysis: Before cell seeding, the different 3D printed scaffolds designs and micro architecture will be submitted to physicochemical, morphological and mechanical characterization, using the following analysis: X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), water uptake (hydrophilic properties of the scaffolds), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Compression Test. The constructs (scaffold plus cells) will be grossly examined for scaffold shrinkage and deformation. Three measurements will be considered for cell proliferation and penetration: surface cell count, interior cell count, and total cell count.
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