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Generalization of equivalence relations from pictures to objects and vice-versa among preschoolers

Grant number: 17/00220-1
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): April 01, 2017
Effective date (End): December 31, 2017
Field of knowledge:Humanities - Psychology - Experimental Psychology
Principal researcher:Deisy das Graças de Souza
Grantee:Felipe Santana de Rose
Home Institution: Centro de Educação e Ciências Humanas (CECH). Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCAR). São Carlos , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Generalized equivalence class refers to the phenomenon in which a new stimulus, physically similar to a member of an equivalence class, controls a behavior already controlled by the original member of the class. This project will be divided in two experiments. Experiment 1 will replicate the study by Pereira et al (2016), which evaluated if preschoolers would generalize equivalence relations established between pictures (2D stimuli) to objects (3D stimuli). Experiment 2 will investigate the generalization of equivalence relations stablished between 3D stimuli to 2D stimuli. For each study, six children from four to five years old in typical development will be recruited. In Experiment 1, a training sequence and an arbitrary relations test among pictures of abstract objects will be performed and the emergence of three equivalence classes with three members in each class will be verified. The baseline relations to be taught will be AB and AC to half of participants and AB and BC to the other half. A multiple-probe design will evaluate the maintenance of baseline relations and the emergence of relations with the properties of symmetry and equivalence among the pictures (which, if positive, will indicate the formation of equivalence classes). After the formation of classes, tests will evaluate the generalization of equivalence relations: a) to the correspondent objects (e.g., if the child will relate object B1 with object C1); b) between pictures and objects (e.g., if the child will relate the picture of object B1 with the object C1, and, the picture of object C1 with the picture of object B1); and schematic drawings (e.g., if the child will relate a drawing based on the picture B1 with a drawing based on the picture C1). Experiment 2 will perform procedures and measures identical to the ones in Experiment 1, however the baseline relations will be taught with objects, which will also be used in classes formation probes, while generalization tests will be performed using only pictures, pictures and objects (interdimensional classes) and schematic drawings. Two scientific initiation scholarships are being required; each student will be responsible for one of the experiments. Keywords: generalized equivalence relations, conditional discriminations, two-dimensional stimuli, three-dimensional stimuli, children (AU)