Since the 1980s a group of countries led by the United States has managed to impose an international standard of intellectual property protection that directly benefits their business interests, either through bilateral pressures, either by a multilateral action under the GATT/WTO. Thus, many developing countries, after an initial resistance, accepted the intellectual property rights as part of a necessary policy of economic modernization that would guarantee those countries an active insertion in the so-called "knowledge society" or as a requirement for the country's entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO). One of the consequences of the incorporation of these laws has been the exponential increase in the flows of charges for the use of intellectual property among countries, which are recorded in their balance of payments. This research aims to map these recordings in order to evaluate a key aspect of the international division of labor in the twenty-first century, identifying, under the particular perspective of international political economy, the countries and regions that benefit most and those who are principal harmed by these new international legal arrangements that are being built around the theme of intellectual property.
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