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Bioturbation and organic matter chemistry in subtropical Ferralsols of planed surfaces in paranaense basaltic plateau: a study beyound the control section

Grant number: 17/22608-1
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): February 01, 2018
Effective date (End): July 31, 2021
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy - Soil Science
Principal researcher:Pablo Vidal Torrado
Grantee:Mariane Chiapini
Home Institution: Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Piracicaba , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Ferralsols are the most studied and most representative soils in Brazil. However, several questions remain with no consistent answers about the genesis and morphology of these soils. The excessive focus of the pedological investigations within the control section (200 cm) has systematically left aside the records that may exist of different moments of pedogenesis in these soils and that are at greater depths. Generalized expressions such as "polygenetic character", "bioturbation throughout the profile", "complex pedogenesis" are the most frequent options for those who are faced with features difficult to be interpreted and hierarchized in these soils. What can be generalized to the Ferralsols in terms of pedogenesis? How does the bioturbation process vary in depth along the soil profile, being able to advance from 2 m depth? How do environmental conditions influence this process? In relation to the genesis of soil microaggregates, which would be the predominant process, would there be a hierarchy? How would the fauna influence the Soil Organic Matter dynamics (SOM) and the actual vertical distribution of the same in the depth profile? These are some of the main questions of this project that aim to understand how the bioturbation (roots and fauna) influences the soil structure and the dynamics of the SOM in subtropical Ferralsols of the flattened surfaces of the basaltic plateau paranaense, contemplating beyond the control section of these soils (200 cm), where pedological studies are usually limited. To reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes of the Quaternary and to relate them to the pedogenesis, 14C dates, analysis of the isotopic composition (´13C), of the phytolithic assembly along the profiles will be performed. Also a study of soil organic chemistry by pyrolysis-GC/MS will also be carried out for paleoenvironmental reconstitution of the quaternary, as well as to understand how the fauna influences the dynamics of MOS. Chemical, mineralogical, geochemical and granulometry analyzes will be carried out on selected samples of the soil profiles to evaluate the pedogenetic processes and their evolution. The micromorphological analysis will be carried out in a detailed way with a focus on the description and quantification of the biological features to evaluate if the fauna action is differentiated both in depth and in different environmental conditions. Thus, from the obtained results, it is expected to increase the understanding of the bioturbation process in the genesis of these soils and in the dynamics of the MOS as a continuum from the surface to the contact with the saprolite. (AU)

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