The research proposal is to study the geography of the Guaraní War and its relation with the territorial formation of Brazil. The war occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century in the southern region of Portuguese America, more precisely, the Captaincy of the Rio Grande de San Pedro. The indigenous resistance against the imperative of the Iberian colonization in the southern region united Guaraníes and Jesuits against the device of the Treaty of Madrid of 1750, that ordered territorial exchanges between the Iberian crowns, to wit: the Seven Towns of the Missions and the Colony of the Sacrament. The breakup of the confrontation in the broader geopolitical framework of the time was the signing of the Treaty of the Brown of 1761, which annulled the Treaty signed in Madrid and put again in suspension the definition of the border in the extreme south of America. The resistances and conflicts unleashed in the XVIII century with the border litigation generated a voluminous Ibero-American cartographic production of the region, the maps made by the technicians of the Demarctorial Expeditions, as well as the production of maps directed by the Jesuit Fathers of the Company of Jesus and of the rebellious Indians will be the sources worked on the investigation. It is possible to affirm that, between the risk in the map and the effectiveness of the territorial incorporation, the plundering of the territory served as fundamental mediation for the success of the colonization. In this sense, our objective is to analyze the sources and to capture in the "entrelíneas" the different forms of colonial violence undertaken in the course of the Brazilian territorial formation and, for that, we question: how the cartographic production produced in the time of the Guaraní War and the consequent territorial plunder of the Brazilian colony was related to the expansion of mercantilism in the seven hundred?
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