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Nitrogen management in cowpea bean, wheat and corn: effects on plant nutrition, grain yield, and nitrogen use efficiency

Grant number: 18/08485-7
Support type:Scholarships abroad - Research Internship - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): April 01, 2019
Effective date (End): September 30, 2019
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Agronomy
Principal Investigator:Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho
Grantee:Fernando Shintate Galindo
Supervisor abroad: Paulo Humberto Pagliari
Home Institution: Faculdade de Engenharia (FEIS). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Ilha Solteira. Ilha Solteira , SP, Brazil
Local de pesquisa : University of Minnesota (U of M), United States  
Associated to the scholarship:17/06002-6 - Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense associated with the use of silicon and nitrogen doses in corn and wheat crops, BP.DR

Abstract

N2 fixation must work with maximum efficiency, especially in legume crops as cowpea bean, besides that nitrogen fertilization is one of the highest costs of the production process of non-leguminous crops such as corn and wheat. In this way a better understanding of the nitrogen management and techniques to increase the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization in Brazilian Cerrado (Savannah) conditions can provide an effective contribution to the nitrogen balance in both soil and plant. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrogen utilization and efficiency on yield and nutritional quality of cowpea, corn and wheat crops with the isotopic technique in order to establish optimal levels of N application in Brazilian conditions as a complement to the project "Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense associated with the use of silicon and nitrogen rates in corn and wheat crops", process number FAPESP (2017/06002-6). The experiments 1 and 2 were and will be performed at São Paulo State University in field conditions. Experiment 1: In this study, will be evaluated the effect of 15N rates on topdressing and seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp associated or not with A. brasilense, evaluating the plant nutrition and development, N utilization by cowpea bean plant, in the grains and straw from fertilizer, through the 15N isotope dilution technique, and the real contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), and the residual effect of the application of the treatments in the wheat crop in succession. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replicates, arranged in a 3x5 factorial scheme, being: three types of inoculation (without inoculation - witness, with two strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., SEMIA 6462 and SEMIA 6463 - the conventional inoculation of cowpea bean, and two strains of Bradyrhizobium sp plus A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 - the co-inoculation); and five rates of N (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, as urea labeled with 15N) applied at topdressing. Experiment 2: The efficiency of nitrogen utilization and development of wheat and corn will be evaluated by the application of six rates of N (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 160 kg ha-1 as urea labeled with 15N) in wheat and the residual effect of the application of N rates plus the treatment with application of 160 kg ha-1 as urea labeled with 15N in the corn crop in succession aiming to evaluate the immediate and residual effect of nitrogen fertilization on wheat and corn crops in Brazilian Cerrado. The nutrients and 15N analyzes will be carried out in the laboratory of Southweast Research & Outreach Center Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station - University of Minnesota. The data coming from this project will be an excellent tool to the understanding of nitrogen use efficiency and management in cowpea, wheat and corn crops and for futures programs of sustainable use of nitrogen for high yield in Brazil, aiming to reduce the emission of gases (CO2 and NO2) that contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect on Earth and the losses of nitrogen in the productive system optimizing nitrogen application as a complement to the project "Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense associated with the use of silicon and nitrogen rates in corn and wheat crops" process number FAPESP (2017/06002-6). (AU)