Ontogenetically, a fruit is a structure that develops from gynoecium after fertilization of one or more eggs. The fruit is associated with seed protection and often dispersal. There is much disagreement among the fruit classifications present in the literature. In this sense, new analyzes in several groups can elucidate such controversies. The Rutaceae A.Juss family, notably the Galipeeae tribe, present a wide variety of fruit types, therefore, it is adequate to the present study. In addition, a series of macromorphological and anatomical evidences, as well as of other areas, point to the necessity of a deep infamous taxonomic revision of Rutaceae. The objective of this project is to elucidate the evolution of the fruits of Galipeeae (Rutoideae, Rutaceae) through morphological and anatomical research. The main hypothesis to be examined concerns the ancestor of rutaceous, possibly with gynaecum pentacarpelar, maturation of all carpels and autocoria. In order to do so, materials from the excerpts collection of the SPF Herbarium will be studied morphologically and anatomically. Concomitantly, ontogenetic analysis will be done with specimens collected in situ at the Institute of Biosciences of the University of São Paulo and field expeditions. Afterwards, an array of fruit character states will be made. Under the most recent phylogeny of Galipeeae, the ancestral character state will be rebuilt using the Mesquite v. 3.40. At the end, it is expected to have an adequate coding of useful characters for later cladistic analyzes, as well as to attenuate the lack of studies on post-flowering carpels of Galipeeae with a whole, and of Rutaceae in particular.
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