Nowadays, air pollution affects the health of great part of human population, especially of the millions of people who live in big urban centers. The exposure to atmospheric pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM), is associated with many comorbidities like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, diabetes and systemic arterial hypertension. There are evidences that this ambiental factor is associated with kidney diseases, more specifically chronic kidney disease. However, there is still not any established correlation between atmospheric pollution and acute kidney injury (AKI). This disorder is common in hospitalized patients, affecting 1 out of 3 children hospitalized by acute causes. This pathology is characterized by the abrupt decay of the kidney function in a brief space of time. It can be caused by different etiologies, such as the diminution of the kidney perfusion, nephrotoxic substances, or even kidney ischemia. The objective of this study is to elucidate if air pollution has any influence on the AKI, measuring if the exposition to atmospheric pollutants aggravates this disease, and investigate the mechanisms involved on this process.
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