The contamination of agricultural products with mycotoxins has been a worldwide problem. In Brazil, the predominantly tropical climate favors the planting and production of the most varied crops, but these same conditions, high humidity, and temperature, also favor the development of fungi and contamination by mycotoxins. Among the fungi that produce mycotoxins, those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, especially to the A. section Flavi, are the main aflatoxin producing species and are considered of great relevance. Studies conducted by our research group have sought to evaluate the levels of contamination of various products destined for human consumption with aflatoxins, as well as their relationship with different species of the group A. section Flavi. To know the diversity of fungal species responsible for the contamination of Brazilian agribusiness products with aflatoxins is essential to assist in the definition of control strategies. The taxonomy of this section is complex, has undergone constant changes, and still lacks genetic studies that help in the correct classification and identification of the species. The objective of this project is to investigate the genetic diversity of A. section Flavi, belonging to the collection of the Institute of Food Technology (ITAL), Campinas / SP (obtained from peanuts, rice, cocoa, sugarcane, spices, cassava and Brazil nuts) and the collection of the State University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina / PR (obtained from yerba mate and corn), in addition, it is expected to clarify the phylogenetic relationships concerning against the current taxonomic status of A. section Flavi through the analysis of multiple loci (²-tubulin, calmodulin, and RNA polymerase II), and possibly describe new species belonging to this section.
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