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Contribution to the study of focused ultrasound transcranial neuromodulation

Grant number: 19/14217-8
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): January 01, 2020
Effective date (End): February 28, 2022
Field of knowledge:Engineering - Biomedical Engineering
Principal Investigator:Eduardo Tavares Costa
Grantee:Patrícia Cardoso de Andrade
Home Institution: Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e de Computação (FEEC). Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Campinas , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:13/07559-3 - BRAINN - The Brazilian Institute of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology, AP.CEPID

Abstract

Neuromodulation is a reversible stimulation or a suppression of the neural activity induced by a variety of energies and technologies. Neuromodulation has been studied to modulate the central and peripheral nervous systems to treat different pathologies like Parkinson Disease, Alzheimer, depression, essential tremor, obsessive compulsive disorder, chronic pain, anxiety disorders amongst others, acting on the neural stimulated region. Many neuromodulation techniques have been developed due to the importance of understanding the functional neuroanatomy and the deep cerebral circuits. Amongst those techniques, it is possible to cite Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). However, some of them are limited for offering risks due to the need of neurosurgeries and also due to the difficulties in redirecting and repositioning the stimulating focus point. In this work it is proposed to apply the functionalities of an ultrasound focusing equipment that is been developed at UNICAMP to, through the skull, apply focused ultrasound waves, brain structures in order to neuromodulate animal's brain and neuromotor functions. It is intended to compare the motor activation with other stimulation techniques. Transcranial Focused ultrasound Stimulation (tFUS) presents difficulties due the huge ultrasound skull attenuation. It is expected that those difficulties of tFUS be overcome and that our results help to expand the knowledge of this technique. (AU)