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Chemical characterization of Echium plantagineum seed oil obtained by three process of extraction

Grant number: 19/24023-6
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): June 01, 2020
Effective date (End): May 31, 2021
Field of knowledge:Agronomical Sciences - Food Science and Technology - Food Science
Principal Investigator:Inar Castro Erger
Grantee:Giovanna Calixto Garcia Carlini
Home Institution: Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas (FCF). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil

Abstract

The most common and less expensive process applied to seed oil extraction is based on organic solvents. However, solvent-free techniques such as continuous screw or hydraulic pressing, more suitable toward environmental aspects, can also be applied to extract the oil. The consumption of oils containing omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) has been associated with cardiovascular protection, due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic and hypotriglyceridemic effects. These health effects are attributed to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly found in fish, krill and algae oils. Since fish oil is the main source of EPA and DHA, the increase of n-3 FA supplementation could promote an imbalance in the marine ecosystem. In addition, EPA and DHA from fish oil present a sensory limitation that avoid their application in several food matrices. For this reason, new sustainable alternatives for marine oils have been searched. Echium Plantagineum, an herbaceous plant from the Boraginaceae family, presents around 30% of oil in its seeds. In its fatty acid composition, Echium seed oil presents about 40-45% n-3 FA, being 13-16% of stearidonic acid (SDA). EPA and DHA can be synthesized by "Mammaliam Sprecher pathway" from ±-linolenic acid (ALA), common in some vegetable oils, but the rate of this conversion use to be very low (<4%). The conversion rate of EPA from SDA is about 5 times higher than from ALA. For this reason, Echium oil is considered an alternative to fish oil as n-3 FA source. The chemical affinity of the minor compounds present in the oil with the organic solvent used in the extraction can alter their extraction from the seeds, changing in consequence, the chemical profile of the oil. In addition, the temperature range applied during the extraction is determinant to the oxidative stability of the extracted oil. Considering the advantages and limitations associated to each extraction process, theobjective of this study was to compare the chemical composition and oxidative stability of Echium seed oil extracted by solvent-free techniques (continuous screw and hydraulic pressing) or using an organic solvent (hexane). The chemical composition will be characterized by fatty acids profile, tocopherol concentration and phenolic compounds; while oxidative stability will be evaluated by peroxide value, aldehydes and volatile compounds.

Scientific publications
(References retrieved automatically from Web of Science and SciELO through information on FAPESP grants and their corresponding numbers as mentioned in the publications by the authors)
ROGERO, MARCELO M.; LEAO, MATHEUS DE C.; SANTANA, TAMIRES M.; PIMENTEL, MARIANA V. DE M. B.; CARLINI, GIOVANNA C. G.; SILVEIRA, TAYSE F. F. DA; GONCALVES, RENATA C.; CASTRO, INAR A. Potential benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to patients with COVID-19. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, v. 156, p. 190-199, AUG 20 2020. Web of Science Citations: 0.

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