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Fat consumption and cardiometabolic risk in residents of the city of São Paulo: dietary intake and cardioprotective potential considering polymorphisms in the FADS1 and FADS2 genes

Grant number: 20/09451-9
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Doctorate
Effective date (Start): January 01, 2021
Effective date (End): December 31, 2024
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Nutrition - Nutritional Analysis of Population
Principal researcher:Regina Mara Fisberg
Grantee:Lais Duarte Batista
Home Institution: Faculdade de Saúde Pública (FSP). Universidade de São Paulo (USP). São Paulo , SP, Brazil
Associated research grant:17/05125-7 - Lifestyle, biochemical and genetic markers as cardiometabolic risk factors: Health Survey in São Paulo City, AP.TEM

Abstract

For decades, international organizations and dietary guidelines around the world have recommended reducing fat intake as a strategy for preventing cardiovascular disease. However, recent evidence has put this relationship in doubt. With the advancement in Nutrition Science and scientific methodologies, some limitations have been explored in order to elucidate the relationship between the consumption of different types of fat and health outcomes. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the consumption of different types of fats in the diet of residents of the city of São Paulo and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors, investigating the cardioprotective potential of omega-3 acids mediated bygenetic markers. The study will use data from the São Paulo Health Survey 2015. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with a probabilistic sample of residents of the city of São Paulo. Data from participants in the "ISA-Nutrição" block who had an assessment of dietary intake and biochemical data collection will be used. Food consumption data obtained by 24-hour food records will be used to estimate fat intake. Dosing of fatty acids from erythrocyte membranes will be used to estimate the percentage of omega-3 and cardiovascular risk classification. Analysis of the prevalence of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FADS1 and FADS2 genes and their association with the omega-3 index, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, will be performed. Multiple linear and logistic regression models will be used to test the association between the variables of interest. Comparisons between consumption estimates and the omega-3 biomarker will be assessed using the paired T-Student Test and Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients. The analyzes will be performed in software R, considering a significance level of 5% and the complexity of the sample. (AU)

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