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Non-pharmacological treatment of western diet-induced heart dysfunction: comparison of aerobic and anaerobic exercise responses

Grant number: 20/06100-0
Support type:Scholarships in Brazil - Scientific Initiation
Effective date (Start): February 01, 2021
Effective date (End): June 30, 2021
Field of knowledge:Health Sciences - Nutrition - Nutrition Biochemistry
Principal researcher:Camila Renata Corrêa
Grantee:Felipe Sarzi
Home Institution: Faculdade de Medicina (FMB). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Campus de Botucatu. Botucatu , SP, Brazil

Abstract

Obesity is a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat and is directly related to the result of several diseases, including diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, among others. The cause of obesity is due to the negative energy expenditure, where more is consumed than spent, which is directly linked to the eating pattern that has changed in recent decades, currently the Western diet is the one that best defines the eating behavior of the Brazilian population, this diet is characterized by excessive consumption of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and low consumption of vitamins and minerals. Physical exercises can bring many benefits to the heart system, helping with the treatment of cardiovascular diseases caused by obesity, physical exercise can be divided into two types, aerobic and anaerobic exercises. However, in the literature, there is no convergence on which of the two types is the most suitable for these diseases. Objective: To compare the effects of Aerobic and Anaerobic exercises on echocardiographic responses in rats with diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. Methods: Wistar rats (n = 60) with approximately 180 grams will be used, which will be randomly distributed in two groups (n = 30) to receive control ration + water (control diet [DC]) or ration rich in simple carbohydrates and fat + drinking water plus 25% sucrose (High Sugar-Fat Diet [HSF]), composing the control groups (C) and HSF, respectively. The animals will receive the diets throughout the experimental period, and in the 20th week they will be submitted to myocardial analysis in vivo to identify cardiac dysfunction. Once the dysfunction is confirmed, the animals will be redistributed into six experimental groups (n = 10), being: control (C), control + aerobic exercise (C + EFA), control + resistance exercise (C + EFR), HSF control, HSF + aerobic exercise (HSF + EFA) and HSF + resistance exercise (HSF + EFR). Animals in groups C + EFA and HSF + EFA will be submitted to aerobic exercise and animals in groups C + TFR and HSF + TFR will be resisted for 10 weeks. The trial period will have a total duration of 30 weeks. Aerobic exercise will be performed on a treadmill and the resistance on a stair. Functional capacity and load adjustments will be determined after stress tests. Obesity will be characterized by assessing the nutritional profile, using calculations of caloric intake, food efficiency and adiposity index. Comorbidities of obesity will be assessed by caudal systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, triacylglycerol and insulin resistance, which will be calculated using the HOMA-IR index. Cardiac function will be assessed in vivo, using Doppler echocardiographic analysis. (AU)

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